A to Z



Hormones are special chemical messengers in the body that are created in the endocrine glands. These messengers control most major bodily functions, from simple basic needs like hunger to complex systems like reproduction, and even the emotions and mood. Hormones travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs.



Cannabis and Hormones, the Science

2016 - Study ~ Identification of an endocannabinoid system in the rat pars tuberalis—a possible interface in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system?
Cell and Tissue Research.

2016 - Study ~ The CB1 receptor is required for the establishm ent of the hyperlocomotor phenotype in developmentally-induced hypothyroidism in mice.


2016 - Study ~ A role for the endocannabinoid system in premature luteal regression and progesterone withdrawal in lipopolysaccharide-induced early pregnancy loss model.

Molecular Human Reproduction.

2016 - Review ~ Overlapping molecular pathways between cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 and
estrogens/androgens on the periphery and their involvement in the pathogenesis of common diseases.

International Journal of Molecular Medicine.

2016 - Study ~ Parabens inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase: A potential role in paraben-enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

Toxicology Letters.

2016 - Study ~ Revealing the role of the endocannabinoid system modulators, SR141716A, URB597 and VDM-11, in sleep homeostasis.

2016 - Study ~ Gonadal hormone modulation of ∆9-tetra hydrocannabinol-induced antinociception and metabolism in female versus male rats.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior

2016 - Study ~ Sex differences in alcohol consumption and alterations in nucleus accumbens
endocannabinoid mRNA in alcohol-dependent rats.


2016 - Study ~ A role for the endocannabinoid system in premature luteal regression and progesterone withdrawal in lipopolysaccharide-induced early pregnancy loss model.
Molecular Human Reproduction.

2016 - Study ~ Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the expression of genes involved in the endocannabinoid system in the bovine endometrium and increases plasma
progesterone concentrations.


2016 - Study ~ Sustained glucocorticoid exposure recruits cortico-limbic CRH signaling to modulate endocannabinoid function.

2016 - Study ~ Interactions between anandamide & corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling modulate human amygdala function & risk for anxiety disorders: An imaging genetics strategy for
modeling molecular interactions.

Biological Psychiatry.

2016 - Study ~ Sex Differences in Cannabinoid-Regulated Biology: A Focus on Energy Homeostasis.
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology.

2016 - Study ~ Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in healthy human subjects exposed to chronic stressors.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry

2016 - Study ~ The endocannabinoid system in the human granulosa cell line KGN.

Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology.

2016 - Study ~ Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: Cannabinoid Receptor Inverse Agonists with Differential CB1 and CB2 Selectivity.
Frontiers in Pharmacology.

2016 - Study ~ Orexin-A represses satiety-inducing POMC neurons and contributes to obesity via
stimulation of endocannabinoid signaling

Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, Italy

2016 - Study ~ Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the
Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring.

University of Malaga, Spain.

2016 - Study ~ Progesterone and Endocannabinoid Interaction Alters Sperm Activation.

Biology of Reproduction, Oxford Academic.

2016 - Study ~ 5-lipoxygenase mediates docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide and N-arachidonoyl-L-alanine-induced reactive oxygen species production and inhibition of proliferation of head and
neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

BioMed Central.

2016 - Study ~ L-type calcium channels and MAP kinase contribute to thyrotropin-releasing hormone induced depolarization in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons.
American Journal of Physiology.

2016 - Study ~ Prolonged activation of human islet cannabinoid receptors in vitro induces adaptation but not dysfunction.
BBA Clinical.

2016 - Study ~ Synthetic cannabinoids revealing adrenoleukodystrophy.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience.

2016 - Study ~ Estradiol impacts the endocannabinoid system in female rats to influence behavioral and structural responses to cocaine.

2016 - Study ~ CB2 cannabinoid receptor is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of leptin in a
model of traumatic brain injury.

Experimental Neurology.

2016 - Study ~ Modulation of Fear Extinction by Stress, Stress Hormones and Estradiol.

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience.

2015 - Study ~ Allosteric Modulation of CB1 by Pregnenolone.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

2015 - Study ~ The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 modulates serotonin-dependent
emotional behaviour, and serotonin1A and serotonin2A/C activity in the hippocampus.

Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Endocannabinoid signaling integrates multiple stress hormone effects on memory. Psychoneuroendocrinology.
2015 - Study ~ Stress and memory: A selective review on recent developments in the understanding of stress hormone effects on memory and their clinical relevance.
Journal of N

2015 - Study ~ Modulation of cannabinoid signaling by amygdala α2-adrenergic system in fear

Behavioural Brain Research.

2015 - Study ~ The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol dysregulates the synthesis of proteins by the human syncytiotrophoblast.

Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids

2015 - Study ~ Endocannabinoid Regulation of Neuroendocrine Systems.
International Review of Neurobiology.

2015 - Study ~ Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress in neonatal rats subjected to suboptimal rearing conditions.

Stress,The International Journal on the Biology of Stress.

2015 - Study ~ Intracellular postsynaptic cannabinoid receptors link thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors to TRPC-like channels in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons. Neuroscience.

2015 - Study ~ Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease.

2015 - Study ~ Effects of CB1 receptor agonism and antagonism on behavioural fear and physiological stress responses in adult intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-replaced
female rats.

2015 - Study ~ Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland.
Chronobiology International.

2015 - Study ~ The endocannabinoid anandamide affects the synthesis of human syncytiotrophoblast-related proteins.

Cell and Tissue Research.

2015 - Study ~ Evidence against a critical role of CB1 receptors in adaptation of the hypothalamic-
pituitary-adrenal axis and other consequences of daily repeated stress.

European Neuropsychoparmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Lipopolysaccharide-induced murine embryonic resorption involves changes in
endocannabinoid profiling and alters progesterone secretion and inflammatory response
by a CB1-mediated fashion.

Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

2015 - Study ~ Dose-response estrogen promotes osteogenic differentiation via GPR40 (FFAR1) in
murine BMMSCs.


2015 - Study ~ Sex-dependence of anxiety-like behavior in cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cnr1) knockout

Behavioural Brain Research.

2015 - Study ~ Progesterone and anandamide in pregnancy loss.
National Research Council, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

2015 - Study ~ The impact of gonadal hormones on cannabinoid dependence.
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Type 1 cannabinoid receptor modulates water deprivation-induced homeostatic responses.

American Physiological Society

2015 - Study ~ A New Perspective on the Pathophysiology of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Model of the Role of Oxytocin.

American Journal of Psychiatry.

2015 - Study ~ Gonadal hormones do not alter the development of antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in adult rats.

Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior

2015 - Study ~ Fetal endocannabinoids orchestrate the organization of pancreatic islet microarchitecture.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2015 - Study ~ The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the androgenic potentiation of
cannabinoid-induced changes in energy homeostasis.

American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism.

2015 - Study ~ Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Drives Anandamide Hydrolysis in the Amygdala to Promote Anxiety.

The Journal of Neuroscience.

2015 - Study ~ Proapoptotic effect of endocannabinoids in prostate cancer cells.
Oncology Reports.

2015 - Study ~ A synergistic interaction of 17-β-estradiol with specific cannabinoid receptor type 2
antagonist/inverse agonist on proliferation activity in primary human
Biomedical Reports.

2015 - Study ~
Enhancing Brain Pregnenolone May Protect Cannabis Intoxication but Should Not Be Considered as an Anti-addiction Therapeutic: Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Blockade and Promoting Anti-Reward.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont

2015 - Study ~ Hormonal status and age differentially affect tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) on learning in female rats.

Frontiers in Neuropharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Rapid Non-Genomic Glucocorticoid Actions in Male Mouse Hypothalamic
Neuroendocrine Cells Are Dependent on the Nuclear Glucocorticoid Receptor.

Oxford Academic; Endocrinology.

2015 - Study ~ Sex-dependent vulnerability to Cannabis abuse in adolescence.

Frontiers in Psychiatry: Addictive Disorders.

2014 - Study ~ 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol sensitizes the pars distalis and enhances forskolin-stimulated prolactin secretion in Syrian hamsters.

Chronobiology International.
The Journal of Biological and Medical Rhythm Research.

2014 - Study ~ Gastrointestinal hormonal responses on GPR119 activation in lean and diseased rodent models of type 2 diabetes.
International Journal of Obesity.

2014 - Study ~ Endocannabinoid Modulation of Synaptic Inputs to Magnocellular Neurons.

Neurophysiology of Neuroendocrine Neurons.

2014 - Study ~ Cyclic ovarian hormone modulation of supraspinal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception and cannabinoid receptor binding in the female rat.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior

2014 - Study ~ Nutritional omega-3 modulates neuronal morphology in the prefrontal cortex along with depression-related behaviour through corticosterone secretion.

Translational Psychiatry.

2014 - Study ~ Endocannabinoid Signaling within the Basolateral Amygdala Integrates Multiple Stress Hormone Effects on Memory Consolidation.


2014 - Study ~ Role of corticosterone in the murine enteric nervous system during fasting.
American Journal of Physiology: Gastriontestinal and Liver Physiology.

2014 - Study ~ Honokiol inhibits androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells.


2014 - Study ~ The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.

2014 - Study ~ A role for endocannabinoids in acute stress-induced suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats.

Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine

2014 - Study ~ Pregnenolone can protect the brain from cannabis intoxication.

National Institute of Health.

2014 - Study ~ The endocannabinoid system and the neuroendocrine control of hydromineral balance.

Journal of Neuroendocrinology.

2013 - Study ~ Chronic Cannabis Abuse, Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Thyroid Function.
Planta Medica.

2013 - Study ~ The regulation of food intake by the gut-brain axis: implications for obesity.
International Journal of Obesity.

2013 - Study ~ The inhibitory effect of anandamide on oxytocin and vasopressin secretion from
neurohypophysis is mediated by nitric oxide.

Regulatory Peptides

2013 - Study ~ Expression of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 in the pituitary of rabbits and its role in the control of LH secretion.

Domestic Animal Endocrinology

2013 - Study ~ The 17-β-oestradiol inhibits osteoclast activity by increasing the cannabinoid CB2
receptor expression.

Pharmacological Research.

2013 - Study ~ Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition-induced changes in plasma corticosterone levels, anxiety and locomotor activity in male CD1 mice.
Hormones and Behavior

2013- Study ~ Anandamide modulates the neuroendocrine responses induced by extracellular volume expansion.

Clinical Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology.

2013 - Study ~ Male and Female Rats Differ in Brain Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Density and Function and in Behavioral Traits Predisposing To Drug Addiction: Effect of Ovarian Hormones.
Current Pharmaceutical Design.

2013 - Study ~ Lipids and addiction: how sex steroids, prostaglandins, and cannabinoids interact with drugs of abuse.
New York Academy Of Sciences.

2013 - Study ~ Stirring the Pot With Estrogens.
American Epilepsy Society.

2013 - Study ~ Endocannabinoid Signaling in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Recovery Following Stress: Effects of Indirect Agonists and Comparison of Male and Female Mice.

National Institute of Health.

2013 - Study ~ Endocannabinoid Signaling and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Comprehensive Physiology.

2013 - Study ~ Of mice and (wo)men: factors influencing successful implantation including

Oxford Academic: Human Reproduction Update.

2013 - Study ~ Food for thought: hormonal, experiential, and neural influences on feeding and obesity.
Washington State Universit

2013 - Study ~ The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers.
International Journal of Endocrinology.

2013 - Study ~ The Endocannabinoid System and Spermatogenesis.

Frontiers in Endocrinology.

2013- Study ~ The CB1 receptor mediates the peripheral effects of ghrelin on AMPK activity but not on growth hormone release.

The FASEB Journal.

2013 - Study ~ Estrogens and Spermiogenesis: New Insights from Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor
Knockout Mice.

International Journal of Endocrinology.

2013 - Study ~ Implantation failure in mice with a disruption in Phospholipase C beta 1 gene: lack of embryonic attachment, aberrant steroid hormone signalling and defective endocannabinoid metabolism.

Molecular Human Reproduction

2012 - Study ~ Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mediates glucocorticoid effects on hormone secretion
induced by volume and osmotic changes.

Clinical Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology.

2012 - Study ~ Minireview: endocannabinoids and gonadal hormones: bidirectional interactions in physiology and behavior.

Oxford Academic: Endocrinology.

2012 - Study ~ Progesterone-dependent regulation of endometrial cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1-R) expression is disrupted in women with endometriosis and in isolated stromal cells exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

2012 - Study ~ Chronic Cannabis Abuse, Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Thyroid Function.

2011 - Study ~ Scientific Opinion on the safety of hemp (Cannabis genus) for use as animal feed.

European Industrial Hemp Association.

2011 - Study ~ Gender-dependent increases with healthy aging of the human cerebral cannabinoid-type 1 receptor binding using [(18)F]MK-9470 PET.


2011 - Study ~ Antinociception and sedation following intracerebroventricular administration of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol in female vs. male rats.

Behavioral Brain Research.

2011 - Study ~ Interaction of endocannabinoid system and steroid hormones in the control of colon cancer cell growth.

Journal of Cellular Physiology.

2011 - Study ~ CB1 cannabinoid receptor mediates glucocorticoid effects on hormone secretion induced by volume and osmotic changes.
Clinical Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology.

2010 - Study ~ Cannabinoids and Reproduction: A Lasting and Intriguing History.


2010 - Study ~ Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is essential for stress adaptation.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

2010 - Study ~ Male-female differences in the effects of cannabinoids on sexual behavior and gonadal hormone function.

Hormones and Behavior.

2010 - Study ~ Localization and Function of the Endocannabinoid System in the Human Ovary.

PLoS One.

2010 - Study ~ Drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behaviour in male and female rats: influence of ovarian hormones.

British Journal of Pharmacology.

2008 - Study ~ Gender-dependent increases with healthy aging of the human cerebral cannabinoid-type 1 receptor binding using [(18)F]MK-9470 PET.


2007 - Study ~ Cannabis reward: biased towards the fairer sex?

British Journal of Pharmacology.

2007 - Study ~ Cannabinoid self-administration in rats: sex differences and the influence of ovarian function.

British Journal of Pharmacology.

2006 - Study ~ Jekyll and Hyde: Two Faces of Cannabinoid Signaling in Male and Female Fertility.

Oxford Academic: Endocrine Reviews.

2006 - Study ~ The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and
energy balance.

Oxford Academic: Endocrine Reviews.

2006 - Study ~ Cannabinoids attenuate norepinephrine-induced melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland by reducing arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity without involvement of cannabinoid receptors.
Journal of Neurochemistry.

2005 - Study ~ Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion by Cannabinoids.

2002 - Study ~ Estrogen stimulates arachidonoylethanolamide release from human endothelial cells and platelet activation.

American Society of Hematology.

2002 - Study ~ Endocrine effects of marijuana.

Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

2001- Study ~ Normal Human Pituitary Gland and Pituitary Adenomas Express Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 and Synthesize Endogenous Cannabinoids: First Evidence for a Direct Role of Cannabinoids on Hormone Modulation at the Human Pituitary Level.

Oxford Academic: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

2001 - Study ~ How might cannabinoids influence sexual behavior?

National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

2001 - Study ~ Dysregulated Cannabinoid Signaling Disrupts Uterine Receptivity for Embryo Implantation.

Journal of Biological Chemistry.

2001- Study ~ Cannabinoid effects on anxiety-related behaviours and hypothalamic


Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior.

2001- Study ~ The Central Cannabinoid Receptor Inactivation Suppresses Endocrine Reproductive Functions.

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.

2001 - Study ~ Sex Differences in Antinociceptive and Motoric Effects of Cannabinoids.
European Journal of Pharmacology.
2000 - Study ~ Sex steroid influence on cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mRNA and endocannabinoid levels in the anterior pituitary gland.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.

1991 - Study ~ Effects of chronic marijuana use on testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin and cortisol in men and women.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

1986 - Study ~ Effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol on Melatonin Secretion in Man.

Hormone and Metabolic Research.

1986 - Study ~ Tolerance to the luteinizing hormone and prolactin suppressive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol develops during chronic prepubertal treatment of female rats.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

1986 - Study ~ Marihuana use across the menstrual cycle.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

1985 - Study ~ Acute effects of marihuana smoking on prolactin levels in human females.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

1985 - Study ~ Acute effects of marihuana on luteinizing hormone in menopausal women.

Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior.

1985 - Study ~ Marijuana use does not spuriously elevate serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels.


1984 - Study ~ Marijuana effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems. Discussion and recommendations.

National Institute on Drug Abuse.

1983 - Study ~ Marijuana: interaction with the estrogen receptor.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

1981 - Study ~ Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol increase plasma testosterone concentrations in mice.

Science Mag.

1978 - Study ~ Effects of chronic marihuana use on integrated plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

1977 - Study ~ Gynecomastia and cannabis smoking: A nonassociation among US Army soldiers.

The American Journal of Surgery.

1976 - Study ~ Marihuana Use. Biologic and Behavioral Aspects.

Postgraduate Medicine.

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