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HIV & Cannabis studies completed



The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.

When someone living with HIV has a weakened immune system (indicated by a low CD4 count), they are at risk of other illnesses. These are known as 'opportunistic infections' because they take the opportunity of the immune system being weak.

*Lentivirus (lente-, Latin for "slow") is a genus of viruses of the Retroviridae family.
Elvitegravir/Cobicistat & Tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC)

Drugs which inhibit CYP3A (e.g., protease inhibitors or cobicistat) may enhance  THC concentrations.  Monitor for dose-related effects of THC (e.g. hallucinations, delusions, paranoid thinking, altered time sense, anxiety, panic, depersonalization, loss of insight, orthostatic hypotension, heart rate).

Considering the widespread use of THC derivatives for appetite stimulation and control of nausea and vomiting, and the lack of reports documenting deleterious effects secondary to the combination of THC and protease inhibitors, a clinically significant drug interaction may not exist when THC is used in moderate amounts.

Patients who use THC and are beginning antiretrovirals should be warned about a possible accentuating of the effects of THC, and that they may need to use less THC for the same effect following treatment initiation.

Links to HIV and Cannabis Based Science & Medical Journals

2018 - Abstract ~ Cannabis Use is Associated with Lower Odds of Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among HIV-Infected Individuals with Chronic Pain.

USA: substance Use & Misuse.

2018 - Abstract ~ HIV-infected cannabis users have lower circulating CD16+ monocytes and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 levels compared with nonusing HIV patients.

London England: AIDS Journal.

2017 - Abstract ~ Smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of alcohol and cannabis use in older adults with and without HIV infection.

Addictive Behaviors Journal.

2017 - Abstract ~ Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 prevents HIV-1 gp120-induced synapse loss by altering endocannabinoid signaling.


2017 - Abstract ~ Disseminated aspergillosis in an HIV-positive cannabis user taking steroid treatment.

The Lancet: Infectious Diseases.

2017 - Abstract ~ Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Suppresses Secretion of IFNα by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells  From Healthy and HIV-Infected Individuals.

Journal Of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (JAIDS).

2017 - Abstract ~ Longitudinal pathways from unconventional personal attributes in the late 20s to cannabis use prior to sexual intercourse in the late 30s.

National Institute of Health: Addictive Behaviors.

2017 - Abstract ~ Cannabis Use, Medication Management and Adherence Among Persons Living with HIV.

HHS Public Access: AIDS and Behavior.

2017 - Study ~ High-intensity cannabis use and HIV clinical outcomes among HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada.

Canada: The International Journal of Drug Policy.

2017 - Study ~ Cannabinoid receptor 2-63 RR variant is independently associated with severe  necroinflammation in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

Italy: PLOS One.

2017 - Study ~ Antihyperalgesic Activities of Endocannabinoids in a Mouse Model of Antiretroviral Induced Neuropathic Pain.

Kuwait: Frontiers in Pharmacology.

2017 - Study ~ Endocannabinoids exert CB1 receptor-mediated neuroprotective effects in models of neuronal damage induced by HIV-1 Tat protein.

Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Journal.

2017 - Abstract ~ Daily Marijuana Use is Associated with Missed Clinic Appointments Among HIV Infected Persons Engaged in HIV Care.

HHS Public Access: AIDS and Behavior.

2017 - Study ~ Immunoregulatory Role of Cannabinoids during Infectious Disease.


2016 - Abstract ~ Identifying HIV care enrollees at-risk for cannabis use disorder.

AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV.

2016 - Study ~ Stakeholders' Views on Barriers to Research on Controversial Controlled Substances.

Journal of Clinical Ethics.

Oxford: Clinical Infectious Diseases.

2016 - Study ~ Medical use of cannabis products : Lessons to be learned from Israel and Canada.
Der Schmerz.

2016 - Study ~ Marijuana effects on changes in brain structure and cognitive function among HIV+ and HIV- adults.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

2016 - Study ~ Longitudinal examination of the intestinal lamina propria cellular

compartment of SIV-infected rhesus macaques provides broader and deeper insights

into the link between aberrant microRNA expression and persistent immune activation.

Journal of Virology.

2015 - Abstract ~ Behavioral, Metabolic, and Immune Consequences of Chronic Alcohol or Cannabinoids on HIV/AIDs: Studies in the Non-Human Primate SIV Model.

Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

2015 - Abstract ~ Combined effects of HIV and marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning and immune status.

AIDS Care.

2015 - Study ~ Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) Promotes Neuroimmune-Modulatory MicroRNA Profile in Striatum of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Infected Macaques.

Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Modulation of HIVGP120 Antigen-Specific Immune Responses In Vivo by Δ9-

Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Activation of Cannabinoid Type Two Receptors (CB2) Diminish Inflammatory
Responses in Macrophages and Brain Endothelium.

Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Neighborhood-level and individual-level correlates of cannabis use among young persons living with HIV/AIDS.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

2015 - Study ~ Narrative review of the safety and efficacy of marijuana for the treatment of commonly state-approved medical and psychiatric disorders.
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice.

Frontiers in Microbiology: Virology.

Oxford Academic: Clinical Infectious Diseases.

2015 - Study ~ Differential immune mechanism to HIV-1 Tat variants and its regulation by AEA.

Scientific Reports.

Frontiers in Microbiology: Virology.

2014 - Abstract ~ Cannabinoid Receptor-2 and HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

Supportive Care in Cancer.

Drug and Alcohol Review.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

Life Science.
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology.

Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience.
Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Drug Testing and Analysis.
AMA Journal of Ethics.

British Journal of Pharmacology.

Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

Cochrane Library.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology.

Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

International Medical University, Internal Medicine, Clinical School, Malaysia.

Journal of Leukocyte Biology.
Journal of Behavioral Medicine.

2012 - Article ~ Cannabinoid Receptor 2-Mediated Attenuation of CXCR4-Tropic HIV Infection in Primary CD4+ T Cells.


Medical Life Sciences.
Molecular Pharmacology.
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.

Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Open Access Pharmaceuticals.

2010 - Study ~ Immunoregulation of a CB2 receptor agonist in a murine model of neuroAIDS.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

NCBI Book.

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences.

Journal of Pain and Symptom Management.

Annals of Internal Medicine.

Journal of Pain and Symptom Management.

Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

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