A to Z

EPILEPSY/ SEIZURES & Cannabis Research


Synthetic cannabidiols can be toxic, while pure CBD derived from the cannabis or hemp plant has proven medical benefits for seizures..


Epilepsy is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizure.
Some definitions of epilepsy require that seizures be recurrent and unprovoked, but others require only a single seizure combined with brain alterations which increase the chance of future seizures.

In many cases a cause cannot be identified; however, factors that are associated include brain trauma, strokes, brain cancer, and drug and alcohol misuse among others.

CBD (non- psychoactive) is a chemical composite of the cannabis plant that does not contain THC, and has been extensively researched to stop seizures from occurring. This is very beneficial to young children suffering from seizures whose parents are concerned about their children using traditional cannabis therapies.
Lab tested CBD oils are now readily available.

Medical Journals Related to Cannabis & Epilepsy

2017 - Study ~ Social factors in marijuana use for medical and recreational purposes.

Epilepsy and Behavior.

2017 - Study ~ Neuroimaging studies towards understanding the central effects of pharmacological cannabis products on patients with epilepsy.

Epilepsy and Behavior.

2017 - Study ~ Historical perspective on the medical use of cannabis for epilepsy: Ancient times to the 1980s.
Epilepsy and Behavior.

2017 - Study ~ Thermolytic degradation of synthetic cannabinoids: chemical exposures and
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

2017 - Study ~ Synaptic Reorganization of the Perisomatic Inhibitory Network in Hippocampi of
Temporal Lobe Epileptic Patients.

BioMed Research International.

2016 - Study ~ The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy: Using Medical Marijuana to Stop Childhood Seizures.
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

2016 - Study ~ Cannabis and epilepsy: An ancient treatment returns to the fore.

Epilepsy and Behavior.

2016 - Study ~ Targeting brain and peripheral plasticity of the lipidome in acute kainic acid-induced
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids.

2016 - Study ~ Endogenous cannabinoid system alterations and their role in epileptogenesis after brain injury in rat.

Epilepsy Research.

2016 - Study ~ Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic influence of N-palmitoylethanolamine, arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide and WIN 55,212-2 on the anticonvulsant activity of antiepileptic
drugs against audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice.

European Journal of Pharmacology.

2016 - Study ~ Effects of Marijuana on ictal and interictal EEG activity in idiopathic generalized

Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of The American Electroencephalographic Society.

2016 - Study ~ From cannabis to cannabidiol to treat epilepsy, where are we?

Current Pharmaceutical Design.

2016 - Study ~ Marijuana use in adults admitted to a Canadian epilepsy monitoring unit.
Epilepsy and Behavior.

2016 - Study ~ The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55.212 reduces consequences of status epilepticus in rats.


2016 - Study ~ Acute Toxicity Associated with Use of 5F-Derivations of Synthetic Cannabinoid
Receptor Agonists with Analytical Confirmation.

Journal of Medical Toxicology.

2016 - Study ~ Current Status and Prospects for Cannabidiol Preparations as New Therapeutic Agents.


2016 - Study ~ Aberrant epilepsy-associated mutant Nav1.6 sodium channel activity can be targeted with cannabidiol.

Oxford Academic: BRAIN, A Journal of Neurology.

2016 - Study ~ CB1 Receptor Antagonism Prevents Long-Term Hyperexcitability after Head Injury by
of Dynorphin-KOR System and mGluR5 in Rat Hippocampus.

Brain Research.

2016 - Study ~ Cannabidiol and epilepsy: rationale and therapeutic potential.

Pharmacological Research.

2016 - Study ~ Involvement of TRPV1 channels in the activity of the cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in an
acute rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsy Research.

2016 - Study ~ Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.
Epilepsy & Behavior.

2016 - Study ~ Dentate cannabinoid-sensitive interneurons undergo unique and selective strengthening of mutual synaptic inhibition in experimental epilepsy.

Neurobiology of Disease.

2016 - Study ~ Effect of JWH-250, JWH-073 and their interaction on "tetrad", sensorimotor,
neurological and neurochemical responses in mice.

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry.

2016 - Study ~ Adverse effects after the use of JWH-210 - a case series from the EU Spice II plus

Drug Testing & Analysis.

2016 - Study ~ Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates
Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase
of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure.

Journal of Molecular Neuroscience.

2016 - Study ~ Cannabis and Cannabinoids.
From The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics.

2016 - Study ~ Investigational new drugs for focal epilepsy.

Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs.

2016 - Study ~ Medical Marijuana for Epilepsy?

Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience.

2016 - Study ~ THC Intoxication by Cannabidiol Enriched Cannabis Extract in Two Children with
Refractory Epilepsy: Full Remission after Switching to Purified Cannabidiol.

Frontiers in Pharmacology.

2016 - Study ~ Turning Up the Heat on Endocannabinoid Signaling.

American Epilepsy Society.

2016 - Study ~ Crucial Roles of the Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in the Suppression of
Epileptic Seizures.

Cell Reports.

2016 - Study ~ Endocannabinoid control of glutamate NMDA receptors: the therapeutic potential and consequences of dysfunction.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology, Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Madrid, Spain.

2016 - Study ~ Fatty Acid Binding Proteins are Intracellular Carriers for THC and CBD.

Journal of Biological Chemistry.

2016 - Study ~ Is the medical use of cannabis a therapeutic option for children?

Paediatrics and Child Health.

2016 - Study ~ Synthetic cannabinoids revealing adrenoleukodystrophy.

Journal of Clinical Neuroscience.

2016 - Study ~ Case Series of Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication from One Toxicology Center.

The Western Journal of Emergency Medicine.

2016 - Study ~ CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli

Seizure Journal.

2016 - Study ~ ABC transporters P-gp and Bcrp do not limit the brain uptake of the novel antipsychotic and anticonvulsant drug cannabidiol in mice.

PeerJ: Peer Reviewed & Open Access.

2016 - Study ~ Analysis of endocannabinoid signaling elements and related proteins in lymphocytes of patients with Dravet syndrome.

British Pharmacological Society: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives.

2016 - Study ~ Transient increase of interleukin-1β after prolonged febrile seizures promotes adult
epileptogenesis through long-lasting upregulating endocannabinoid signaling.

Nature: Scientific Reports.

2016 - Study ~ The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

2015 - Study ~ The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-specific agonist AM1241 increases

pentylenetetrazole induced seizure severity in Wistar rats.

Epilepsy Research.

2015 - Study ~ Convulsant effects of high efficacy synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 in mice.

The FASEB Journal.

2015 - Study ~ The effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure on seizure susceptibility and lethality in adult male rats.

Neurotoxicology and Teratology.

2015 - Study ~ Cannabidiol as potential treatment in refractory pediatric epilepsy.

Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics.

2015 - Study ~ Polypharmacology Shakes Hands with Complex Aetiopathology.

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences.

2015 - Study ~ Cannabis and Endocannabinoid Signaling in Epilepsy.

Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Palmitoylethanolamide attenuates PTZ-induced seizures through CB1 and CB2 receptors.

Epilepsy Research.

2015 - Study ~ Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of the synthetic cannabinoids UR-144 and XLR-11.

Drug Testing and Analysis.

2015 - Study ~ Issues and promise in clinical studies of botanicals with anticonvulsant potential.

Department of Neurology, University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

2015 - Study ~ Marijuana Use in Epilepsy: The Myth and the Reality.
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports.

2015 - Study ~ Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, inhibits cocaine-induced seizures in mice: Possible role of the mTOR pathway and reduction in glutamate release.


2015 - Study ~ ACEA (a highly selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist) stimulates hippocampal
neurogenesis in mice treated with antiepileptic drugs.

Brain Research.

2015 - Study ~ Changes over time of cannabinoid receptor 1 in hippocampus of status epilepticus rats.

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi journal.

2015 - Study ~ JWH-018 impairs sensorimotor functions in mice.


2015 - Study ~ Influence of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide, a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor
agonist, on the anticonvulsant and acute side-effect potentials of clobazam, lacosamide
and pregabalin in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure model and chimney test in

Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Weeding out bad waves: towards selective cannabinoid circuit control in epilepsy.

Nature Reviews: Neuroscience.

2015 - Study ~ Pure cannabidiol in the treatment of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy: a case report.

Pediatric Neurology.

2015 - Study ~ The role of cannabinoids and leptin in neurological diseases.

Acta Neurologica Scandinavia.

2015 - Study ~ Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory

Epilepsy and Behavior. Department of Pediatrics and Neurology, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado.

2015 - Study ~ Withdrawal Seizures Seen In the Setting of Synthetic Cannabinoid Abuse.

The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

2015 - Study ~ Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase mediates a cannabinoid 1-receptor dependent delay of kindling progression in mice.

Neurobiology of Disease.

2015 - Study ~ A Common Source Outbreak of Severe Delirium Associated with Exposure to the Novel Synthetic Cannabinoid ADB-PINACA.

AAEM (American Academy of Emergency Medicine.) The Journal of Emergency Medicine.

2015 - Study ~ Options for pharmacoresistant epilepsy in children: when medications don't work.

Pediatric Annals.

2015 - Study ~ Effects of WIN 55,212-2 (a synthetic cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) on the anticonvulsant activity of various novel antiepileptic drugs against 6 Hz-induced
psychomotor seizures in mice.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior.

2015 - Study ~ Neuroprotective effects of trans-caryophyllene against kainic Acid induced seizure
activity and oxidative stress in mice.

Neurochemical Research.

2015 - Study ~ Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial.

The Lanceet: Neurology.

2015 - Study ~ Marijuana: A Time-Honored but Untested Treatment for Epilepsy.

Cambridge Core: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences.

2015 - Study ~ Drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory

Epilepsia: Official Journal of the International League Against Epilepsy.

2015 - Study ~ Enhancement of endocannabinoid signalling protects against cocaine-induced

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ The basolateral amygdala γ-aminobutyric acidergic system in health and disease.
Journal of Neuroscience Research: The Amygdala: Dysfunction, Hyperfunction and Connectivity.

2015 - Study ~ TRPV1 Channel: A Potential Drug Target for Treating Epilepsy.

Current Neuropharmacology:
Neuroscience Research Center, University of Suleyman Demirel, Isparta,Turkey.

2015 - Study ~ Loss of Either Rac1 or Rac3 GTPase Differentially Affects the Behavior of Mutant Mice and the Development of Functional GABAergic Networks.

Oxford Journals: Cerebral Cortex.

2015 - Study ~ Investigational new drugs for focal epilepsy.

Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs.

2015 - Study ~ Cannabinoids: is there a potential treatment role in epilepsy?

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy.

2015 - Study ~ Impaired 2-AG signaling in hippocampal glutamatergic neurons: aggravation of anxiety-like behavior and unaltered seizure susceptibility.
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology.

2015 - Study ~ Cannabinoids and Epilepsy.

2015 - Study ~ Phytocannabinoids and epilepsy.

Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics: Phytocannabinoids and Epilepsy.

2015 - Study ~ Interaction between Cannabinoid Compounds and Capsazepine in Protection against Acute Pentylenetetrazole-induced Seizure in Mice.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research.

2015 - Study ~ Selective blockade of the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol
impairs learning and memory performance while producing antinociceptive activity in

Scientific Reports: Cognitive Neuroscience.

2015 - Study ~ Defects in fatty acid amide hydrolase 2 in a male with neurologic and psychiatric

Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases.

2015 - Study ~ Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine.
Mediators of Inflammation.

2015 - Study ~ Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs) are Intracellular Carriers for Δ9-
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD).

Journal of Biological Chemistry.

2015 - Study ~ Muscarinic M1 receptor and cannabinoid CB1 receptor do not modulate paraoxon-
induced seizures.

Pharmacology Research & Perspectives: Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

2015 - Study ~ Augmented Inhibition from Cannabinoid-Sensitive Interneurons Diminishes CA1 Output after Traumatic Brain Injury.

Frontiers in cellular Neuroscience.

2014 - Study ~ Discriminating the effects of Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica: a web survey of
medical cannabis users.

Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, New York.

2014 - Study ~ Medical marijuana and children.

Delaware Medical Journal.

2014 - Study ~ Changes and overlapping distribution in the expression of CB1/OX1-GPCRs in rat
hippocampus by kainic acid-induced status epilepticus.

Brain Research.

2014 - Study ~ Involvement of PPAR receptors in the anticonvulsant effects of a cannabinoid agonist, WIN 55,212-2.

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry.

2014 - Study ~ Human and canine seizures due to PB-22, a novel synthetic cannabinoid.
Journal of Clinical Toxicology.

2014 - Study ~ Efficiency and safety of epidiolex (Cannabidiol) in children and yound adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy.

American Epilepsy Society.

2014 - Letter ~ A 'spicy' encephalopathy: synthetic cannabinoids as cause of encephalopathy and seizure.

Springer Nature: Critical Care.

2014 - Study ~ The Comprehensive Report on the Cannabis Extract Movement and the Use of Cannabis Extracts to Treat Diseases.

Author: Justin Kander.

2014 - Study ~ Delayed seizure-like activity following analytically confirmed use of previously
unreported synthetic cannabinoid analogues.

Human & Experimental Toxicology: National Poisons Centre, Department of Preventative and Social Medicine, University of Otago,

New Zealand.

2014 - Study ~ Cannabidiol: Promise and Pitfalls.

Epilepsy Currents: Reviews and Critical Analysis.

2014 - Study ~ Disease-Modifying Effects of RHC80267 and JZL184 in a Pilocarpine Mouse Model

of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

CNS: Neuroscience & Therapeutics.

2014 - Study ~ Anticonvulsant Effects of N-Arachidonoyl-Serotonin, a Dual FAAH Enzyme and TRPV1 Channel Blocker, on Experimental Seizures: The Roles of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors
and TRPV1 Channels.

Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology.

2014 - Study ~ ABHD6 Blockade Exerts Antiepileptic Activity in PTZ-Induced Seizures and in
Spontaneous Seizures in R6/2 Mice.

Neuron Journal.

2014 - Study ~ Seizing an opportunity for the endocannabinoid system.

Epilepsy Currents: Reviews and Critical Analysis.

2014 - Study ~ The case for assessing cannabidiol in epilepsy.

Epilepsia: Controversy in Epilepsy.

2014 - Study ~ Cannabinoids for epilepsy.

Cochrane Library: Database of Systematic Reviews.

2014 - Study ~ The potential of antiseizure drugs and agents that act on novel molecular targets

as antiepileptogenic treatments.

2014 - Study ~ Selected terpenoids from medicinal plants modulate endoplasmic reticulum stress in metabolic disorders.

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.
International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology.

2013 - Article ~ Comes Now Epidiolex (FDA approves IND studies of CBD).

Cannabidiols: Potential Use in Epilepsy & Other Neurological Disorders.

2013 - Study ~ Pharmaceuticals Provides Update on Orphan Program in Childhood Epilepsy for

GW Pharmaceuticals.

2013 - Study ~ Alterations of endocannabinoids in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with epileptic seizure disorder.

Gesell et al. BMC Veterinary Research.

2013 - Study ~ Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression.


2013 - Study ~ Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment- resistant epilepsy.

National Institutes of Health: Epilepsy Behavior, Department of Neurology, Stanford University.

2013 - Study ~ Cannabis and other illicit drug use in epilepsy patients.

European Journal of Neurology.

2013 - Study ~ The Role of CB1-Receptors in the Proconvulsant Effect of Leptin on Penicillin-Induced Epileptiform Activity in Rats.

CNS: Neuroscience & Therapeutics.

2013 - Study ~ The role of potassium BK channels in anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol in
pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock models of seizure in mice.

Journal of Epilepsy Behavior.

2013 - Study ~ Cannabinoid 1 receptor as therapeutic target in preventing chronic epilepsy.

FASEB Journal.

2013 - Study ~ The du2J mouse model of ataxia and absence epilepsy has deficient cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated signalling.

Journal of Physiology.

2013 - Study ~ The role of α2-adrenoceptors in the anti-convulsant effects of cannabinoids on
pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice.

European Journal of Pharmacology.

2013 - Study ~ CB1 agonists, locally applied to the cortico-thalamic circuit of rats with genetic absence epilepsy, reduce epileptic manifestations.

Epilepsy Research.

2013 - Study ~ The secret "spice": an undetectable toxic cause of seizure.
The Neurohospitalist.

2013 - Study ~ Effects of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate on the anticonvulsant action of lamotrigine,
oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate against maximal electroshock-induced seizures
in mice.

European Journal of Pharmacology.

2013 - Study ~ Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

Drug Testing and Analysis.

2013 - Study ~ Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism.

British Journal of Pharmacology.

2012 - Patent Application ~ Use of the phytocannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) in the treatment of epilepsy: Patent Application 20120004251

Fresh Patents.

2012 - Study ~ Inverse relationship of cannabimimetic (R+)WIN 55, 212 on behavior and seizure threshold during the juvenile period.

Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior.

2012 - Study ~ Equipotent Inhibition of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase - Dual Targets of the Endocannabinoid System to Protect against Seizure Pathology.

Journal of Neurotherapeutics.

2012 - Study ~ Epileptiform activity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus becomes refractory to attenuation by cannabinoids in part because of endogenous γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor activity.

Journal of Neuroscience Research.

2012 - Study ~ Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

2012 - Study ~ Statistical parametric mapping reveals regional alterations in cannabinoid CB1 receptor distribution and G-protein activation in the 3D reconstructed epileptic rat brain.


2012 - Study ~ Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures.

Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy.

2012 - Study ~ Internet Highs-Seizures After Consumption of Synthetic Cannabinoids Purchased Online.

Journal of Addiction Medicine.

2012 - Study ~ Cannabinoid receptor 1 inhibition causes seizures during anesthesia induction in experimental sepsis.

Journal of Anesthesia & Analgesia.

2012 - Study ~ Effect of ACEA-a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist on the protective action of different antiepileptic drugs in the mouse pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model.

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry.

2011 - Study ~ Endocannabinoid system protects against cryptogenic seizures.

Pharmacological Reports.

2011 - Study ~ Convulsions Associated with the Use of a Synthetic Cannabinoid Product.

Journal of Medical Toxicology.

2011 - Study ~ Pro-epileptic effects of the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716 in a model of audiogenic epilepsy.

Epilepsy Research.

2011 - Study ~ Synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 mesylate enhances the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior.

2011 - Study ~ Protective effects of CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 in seizure activity in the model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Outbound Medicine.

2011 - Study ~ L-Type Calcium Channel Mediates Anticonvulsant Effect of Cannabinoids in Acute and Chronic Murine Models of Seizure.

Neurochemical Research.

2011 - Study ~ Changes in the cannabinoid (CB1) receptor expression level and G-protein activation in kainic acid induced seizures.
Epilepsy Research.

2011 - Study ~ Marijuana, endocannabinoids, and epilepsy: Potential and challenges for improved therapeutic intervention.

Experimental Neurology, a Journal of Neuroscience Research.

2010 - Study ~ Cannabidiol Displays Antiepileptiform and Antiseizure Properties In Vitro and In Vivo.

The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

2010 - Study ~ Cannabinoid-mediated inhibition of recurrent excitatory circuitry in the dentate gyrus in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

PLOS ONE: A Peer-reviewed, Open Access Journal.

2010 - Study ~ AAV vector-mediated overexpression of CB1 cannabinoid receptor in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus protects against seizure-induced excitoxicity.

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

2010 - Study ~ Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats.


2010 - Study ~ Anticonvulsant effects of GWP42006 in vitro and in vivo in rat.

The Physiological Society: Cellular Neurophysiology Abstracts.

2010 - Study ~ Dynamic changes of CB1-receptor expression in hippocampi of epileptic mice and humans.

Epilepsia. Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

2009 - Study ~ The effects of intracerebroventricular AM-251, a CB1-receptor antagonist, and ACEA, a CB1-receptor agonist, on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats.

Epilepsia: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ondokuz Mayis, Samsun, Turkey.

2009 - Study ~ Prolonged exposure to WIN55,212-2 causes downregulation of the CB1 receptor and the development of tolerance to its anticonvulsant effects in the hippocampal neuronal culture model of acquired epilepsy.


2009 - Study ~ The effects of intracerebroventricular AM‐251, a CB1‐receptor antagonist, and ACEA, a CB1‐receptor agonist, on penicillin‐induced epileptiform activity in rats.

Epilepsia: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ondokuz Mayis, Samsun, Turkey.

2009 - Study ~ Involvement of nitrergic system in the anticonvulsant effect of the cannabinoid CB1 agonist ACEA in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice.

Epilepsy Research.

British Journal of Pharmacology.

2008 - Study ~ The cannabinoid anticonvulsant effect on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure is potentiated by ultra-low dose naltrexone in mice.
Epilepsy Research.

Reviews in Neurological Diseases.

2007 - Study ~ Development of pharmacoresistance to benzodiazepines but not cannabinoids in the hippocampal neuronal culture model of status epilepticus.

Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

2007 - Study ~ Endocannabinoids block status epilepticus in cultured hippocampal neurons.
European Journal of Pharmacology.

2007 - Study ~ Downregulation of the CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor and Related Molecular Elements of the Endocannabinoid System in Epileptic Human Hippocampus.

Neurobiology of Disease: Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

2007 - Study ~ Ultra-low dose cannabinoid antagonist AM251 enhances cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice.


2006 - Study ~ Not Too Excited? Thank Your Endocannabinoids.

Neuron: Open Article.

2006 - Study ~ Forebrain-Specific Inactivation of Gq/G11 Family G Proteins Results in Age-Dependent Epilepsy and Impaired Endocannabinoid Formation.

Molecular and Cellular Biology: University of Heidelberg, Germany.

2006 - Study ~ The Endocannabinoid System Controls Key Epileptogenic Circuits in the Hippocampus.

Neuron: Department of Physiological Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany.

2006 - Study ~ Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists cause status epilepticus-like activity in the hippocampal neuronal culture model of acquired epilepsy.

Neuroscience Letter: Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

2006 - Study ~ Activation of the Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Mediates the Anticonvulsant Properties of Cannabinoids in the Hippocampal Neuronal Culture Models of Acquired Epilepsy and Status Epilepticus.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

2006 - Study ~ Cannabinoids In Medicine: A Review Of Their Therapeutic Potential.

Journal of Ethnopharmacology.

2006 - Study ~ Arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide, a highly selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, enhances the anticonvulsant action of valproate in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model.

European Journal of Pharmacology.

2005 - Study ~ Selective antiepileptic effects of N-palmitoylethanolamide, a putative endocannabinoid.

Epilepsia: Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan.

2005 - Study ~ Treatment with CBD in oily solution of drug-resistant paediatric epilepsies.
The Netherlands: International Association for Cannabis as Medicine.

2005 - Study ~ Cannabinoids as potential anti-epileptic drugs.

Current Opinion investigational Drugs, London England.

2004 - Study ~ Endocannabinoids and Their Implications for Epilepsy.

American Epilepsy Society:

2004 - Study ~ Cannabinoids: Defending the Epileptic Brain.

Epilepsy Currents: American Epilepsy Society.

2004 - Study ~ Marijuana use and epilepsy - Prevalence in patients of a tertiary care epilepsy center.

Neurology Journal.

2003 - Study ~ The Endogenous Cannabinoid System Regulates Seizure Frequency and Duration in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

2003 - Study ~ On the application of cannabis in paediatrics and epileptology.

Neuro Endocrinology Letters Journal.

2001 - Study ~ Anticonvulsant activity of N-palmitoylethanolamide, a putative endocannabinoid, in mice.

2001 - Study ~ Alcohol and marijuana: effects on epilepsy and use by patients with epilepsy.

1999 - Study ~ Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids.

British Journal of Psychiatry.

1992 - Study ~ Marijuana use and the risk of new onset seizures.

Transactions of the American and Climatological Association.

1990 - Study ~ Illicit drug use and the risk of new onset seizures.
American Journal of Epidemiology.

1982 - Study ~ Anticonvulsant effects of the (-) and (+)isomers of cannabidiol and their dimethylheptyl homologs.


1982 - Study ~ Effects of cannabidiol on behavioral seizures caused by convulsant drugs or current in mice.

European Journal of Pharmacology.

1981 - Study ~ Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol.

Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

1981 - Study ~ Antiepileptic potential of cannabidiol analogs.

Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

1981 - Study ~ The cannabinoids as potential antiepileptics.

Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

1980 - Study ~ Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.


1978 - Study ~ Anticonvulsant Action of Cannabis in the Rat: Role of Brain Monoamines.
Psychopharmacology (Berl).

1977 - Study ~ Cannabidiol--antiepileptic drug comparisons and interactions in experimentally induced seizures in rats.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

1976 - Study ~ Anticonvulsant activity of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol compared with three other drugs.
European Journal of Pharmacology.

1975 - Study ~ Antiepileptic and prophylactic effects of tetrahydrocannabinols in amygdaloid kindled cats.


1975 - Study ~ Anticonvulsant activity of four oxygenated cannabidiol derivatives.
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology.

1975 - Study ~ Epileptiform seizures in domestic fowl. V. The anticonvulsant activity of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.

1949 - Study ~ Anti-epileptic Action of Marijuana-Active Substances.


Top Home

Recommended Strains

Video: A Little Girl With Epilepsy
Who Tries Cannabis Oil

First Aid for all seizure types (Image)