Cannabis Research A-Z

Open Access to Science

Chemical Composition of the Cannabis Plant


Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions.

Science & Research

Undated - Study ~ Hemp.

2014 - Study ~ Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: Analytical and phytochemical characterization of unsaponifiable fraction.

2014 - Study ~ Metals and organic compounds in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids: a chemometric approach to the analysis of Cannabis sativa


2014 - Survey ~ Variability of cannabis potency in the Venice area (Italy)

2013 - Study ~ Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals

2013 - Study ~ In planta imaging of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in Cannabis sativa L. with hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

2013 - Study ~ Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile.

2013 - Study ~ Early Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Steps in Cannabis sativa: Link between Genes and Metabolites

2013 - Study ~ The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands

2013 - Study ~ A review of the cultivation and processing of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) for production of prescription medicines in the UK.

2013 - Study ~ Biotransformation of cannabinoids by a cell suspension culture of Cannabis sativa L.

2013 - Study ~ LCMS Spectral Evidence of the Occurrence of Cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa Cell Cultures

2012 - Study ~ Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

2012 - Study ~ Proteomic profiling of hempseed proteins from Cheungsam.

2012 - Study ~ The hexanoyl-CoA precursor for cannabinoid biosynthesis is formed by an acyl-activating enzyme in Cannabis sativa trichomes.

2012 - Study ~ Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

2012 - Study ~ Heat Exposure of Cannabis sativa Extracts Affects the Pharmacokinetic and Metabolic Profile in Healthy Male Subjects.

2012 - Study ~ Chemiluminescence detection of cannabinoids and related compounds with acidic potassium permanganate.

2012 - Study ~ Structure and Function of Δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCA) Synthase, the EnzymeControlling the Psychoactivity of Cannabis sativa.

2011- Study ~ Cannabis as a Unique Functional Food.

2011 - Study ~ How Accurate is Potency Testing?

2011 - Study ~ Changes of photosynthesis-related parameters and productivity of Cannabis sativa under different nitrogen supply.

2011 - Study ~ Influence of agroclimatic conditions on content of main cannabinoids in industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

2011 - Study ~ Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.

2011 - Study ~ Heterogeneity in the composition of marijuana seized in California.

2011 - Study ~ Characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Cannabis plants grown in Northern Thailand and its forensic application.

2011 - Study ~ Sub-chronic impact of cannabinoids in street cannabis on cognition, psychotic-like symptoms and psychological well-being.

2011 - Study ~ Bioactive Prenylogous Cannabinoid from Fiber Hemp (Cannabis sativa).

2011 - Study ~ Cadmium Tolerance and Bioaccumulation of 18 Hemp Accessions.

2011 - Study ~ Cannabinoids: occurrence and medicinal chemistry.

2011 - Study ~ The cannabinoid type-1 receptor carboxyl-terminus, more than just a tail.

2011 - Study ~ Cannabis profiling based on its elemental composition--is it possible?

2011 - Study ~ The Effect of Electrical Lighting Power and Irradiance on Indoor-Grown Cannabis Potency and Yield

2011 - Study ~ A real-time PCR assay for the relative quantification of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene in herbal Cannabis samples.

2010 - Study ~ Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol content in cannabis samples seized in Novi Sad during 2008.

2010 - Study ~ In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.


2010- Study ~ Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes.

2009 - Study - A qualitative and quantitative HPTLC densitometry method for the analysis of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L.

2009 - Patent ~ US Patent Application 20090324797 - MODULATING PLANT OIL LEVELS.

2009 - Study - Identification of candidate genes affecting Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa.

2009 - Study ~ Hydroxylation and Further Oxidation of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol by Alkane-Degrading Bacteria.

2009 - Study ~ Effects of Gibberellic Acid on Primary Terpenoids and Delta-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis sativa at Flowering Stage.

2009 - Study ~ The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the accumulation of medicinal compounds in plants.

2009 - Study ~ Innovative development and validation of an HPLC/DAD method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of major cannabinoids in cannabis plant material.

2008 - Study - Non-cannabinoid constituents from a high potency Cannabis sativa variety.

2008 - Study - Cannabinoid Ester Constituents from High-Potency Cannabis sativa.

2008 - Study - Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia.

2007 - Study - Effects of Gibberellic Acid on Primary Terpenoids and Delta-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis sativa at Flowering Stage.

2007 - Study ~ Identification and Characterization of Cannabinoids That Induce Cell Death through Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in Cannabis Leaf Cells.

2007 - Study - Cannabis: A source of useful pharma compounds neglected in India.

2006 - Study ~ Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

2006 - Study ~ DNA poly morphisms in the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene in "drug-type" and "fiber-type" Cannabis sativa L.

2006 - Study - Cannabis confusions.

2006 - Study ~ Analysis of Choline and Atropine in Hairy Root Cultures of Cannabis Sativa L. by Capillary Electrophoresis-electrospray Mass Spectrometry.

2006 - Study - Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial.

2005 - Study - Flavonoid glycosides and cannabinoids from the pollen of Cannabis sativa L.

2005 - Study ~ Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids.

2005 - Study ~ Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, the enzyme controlling marijuana psychoactivity, is secreted into the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes.

2005 - Study ~ Flavonoid glycosides and cannabinoids from the pollen of Cannabis sativa L.

2005 - Study - Plant cannabinoids: a neglected pharmacological treasure trove.

2004 - Study - Comparative Proteomics of Cannabis sativa Plant Tissues.

2004 - Study ~ The gene controlling marijuana psychoactivity: molecular cloning and heterologous expression of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.

2004 - Study ~ Hemp-seed and olive oils: their stability against oxidation and use in O/W emulsions.

2004 - Study - NMR assignments of the major cannabinoids and cannabiflavonoids isolated from flowers of  Cannabis sativa.

2004 - Study - A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis.

2003 - Study - Composition of the essential oils and extracts of two populations of Cannabis sativa L. ssp. spontanea from Austria.

2002 - Study - Biochemical differences in Cannabis sativa L. depending on sexual phenotype.

2002 - Study - The Inheritance of Chemical Phenotype in Cannabis sativa L.

2002 - Study - Cannabis / Marijuana ( Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol, THC).

2002 - Study ~ Chemotaxonomic features associated with flavonoids of cannabinoid-free cannabis (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa L.) in relation to hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

2001 - Study - Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts?

2001 - Study - Differential effects of medical marijuana based on strain and route of administration.

2000 - Study - Characterisation of cannabis plants phenotypes from illegal cultivations in Crete.

2000 - Study ~ Advantages of polypharmaceutical herbal cannabis compared to single ingredient, synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol.

2000 - Study ~ Development of a novel class of monocyclic and bicyclic alkyl amides that exhibit CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor affinity and receptor activation.

2000 - Study ~ The Influence of Nutrient Supply and Plant Density on the Yield and Fibre of Hemp.

2000 - Study ~ GC-MS analysis of the total delta9-THC content of both drug- and fiber-type cannabis seeds.

1999 - Study - Medical Cannabis Potency Testing Project.

1998- Study ~ Capillary electrochromatography of cannabinoids.

1997 - Study ~ Essential Oil of Cannabis sativa L. Strains.

1997 - Study ~ Immunochemical localization of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cryofixed glandular trichomes of Cannabis (Cannabaceae).

1997 - Study ~ The Mineral Nutrition of Cannabis.

1996 - Study ~ The Volatile Oil Composition of Fresh and Air-Dried Buds of Cannabis sativa.

1994 - Study ~ Chemical ecology of Cannabis.

1992 - Study ~ Cannabinoid acids analysis.

1992 - Study - Some features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom from seeds of known origin.

1990 - Study ~ Characterization of the lipophilicity of natural and synthetic analogs of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its relationship to pharmacological potency.

1988 - Study ~ Oral vs. Inhaled Cannabinoids for Nausea/Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy.

1988 - Study ~ Histochemical detection of hemp trichomes and their correlation with the THC content.

1987- Study ~ Identification of a New Chemotype in Cannabis sativa: Cannabigerol - Dominant Plants, Biogenetic and Agronomic Prospects.


1985 - Study ~ Cannabinoid content of cannabis grown on the Danish island of Bornholm.

1984 - Study ~ Constituents of Cannabis sativa, XXV. Isolation of two new dihydrostilbenes from a Panamanian variant.

1982 - Study - Constituents of Cannabis sativa L., XX: the cannabinoid content of Mexican variants grown in Mexico and in Mississippi, United States of America.

1981 - Study - Developing vegetative leaves of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae).

1981 - Study ~ Chemataxonomic researches in higher plants. XV Carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments in the leaves of Cannabis sativa L.


1978 - Study ~ Influence of photoperiodism on cannabinoid content of Cannabis sativa L.

1978 - Study ~ An investigation of procedures reported to increase potency of marijuana: a chemical analysis and psychological interpretation.

1977 - Study ~ Cannabinoid patterns in seedlings of Cannabis sativa L. and their use in the determination of chemical race.

1977 - Study ~ Chemical composition of Brazilian marihuana samples and the importance of several constituents to the pharmacological activity of the plant.

1977 - Study ~ Responses of Greenhouse-grown Cannabis sativa L. to Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium.

1977 - Study ~ The decomposition of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in organic solvents.

1976 - Study ~ Ganja in Jamaica : Appendix III – “Laboratory Analyses of Ganja Samples".

1975 - Study ~ Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. II: Absence of cannabidiol in an african variant.

1975 - Study ~ Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. VIII: Possible biological application of a new method to separate cannabidiol and cannabichromene.

1975 - Study ~ Cannabinoid Profile and Elemental Uptake of Cannabis sativa L. as Influenced by Soil Characteristics.

1975 - Study ~ Cannabinoid formation in Cannabis sativa grafted inter-racially, and with two Humulus species.

1973 - Study ~ Cannabinoid Phenotypes in Cannabis sativa.

1972 - Study ~ Recent Developments in Cannabis Chemistry.

1972 - Study ~ Water-soluble derivatives of 1 -tetrahydrocannabinol.

1964 - Study ~ Isolation, Structure, and Partial Synthesis of an Active Constituent of Hashish.

1955 - Study ~ HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT : Properties of isolated substances.

1955 - Study ~ HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT : Survey of clinical experiences.

1946 - Study ~ Effects of Fertilizers on Yields and Breaking Strengths of American Hemp, Cannabis Sativa.

1940 - Study ~ The Active Principles of Cannabis and the Pharmacology of the Cannabinols.

1938 - Study ~ The active principles of Cannabis indica resin.

What Are THC & CBD?