Are There Addiction Risks to Cannabis?
Cannabis Maintenance as Addiction Treatment?
In 2010, 16,652 overdose deaths were directly related to prescribed medications. namely opioid based.
While doctors prescribed these lethal narcotics, some estimates suggest that up to 70% of these medications get re-sold on the streets.
A study of 4000 indicates that cannabis discourages use of alcohol and hard drugs.
Cannabis Addiction Research
2016 - News ~ 8 Myths About Weed You Should Stop Believing
2014 - Study ~ Evaluation of WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats as a potential cannabinoid abuse liability model.
Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior
2014 - Study ~ Nabiximols as an agonist replacement therapy during cannabis withdrawal: a randomized clinical trial.
2014 - Study ~ Prevalence and correlates of alcohol and cannabis use disorders in the United States: results from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.
2014 - Study ~ Cannabis withdrawal in chronic, frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence within a closed residential environment. American Journal of Addictions
2014 - Study ~ Relationship between working-memory network function and substance use: a 3-year longitudinal fMRI study in heavy cannabis users and controls.
2014 - News ~ Muting Marijuana's High: Pot Without the Impairment.
2013 - Study ~ Implicit associations and explicit expectancies toward cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls.
Frontiers in Psychiatry
2013 - Study ~ The Global Epidemiology and Contribution of Cannabis Use and Dependence to the Global Burden of Disease.
2013 - Study ~ The Interplay between Parental Monitoring and the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene in Adolescent Cannabis Use.
2013 - Study ~ Inhibition of FAAH and activation of PPAR: new approaches to the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and
2013 - Study ~ Lipids and addiction: how sex steroids, prostaglandins, and cannabinoids interact with drugs of abuse.
New York Academy of Science
2013 - Study ~ Role of intra-accumbal cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the potentiation, acquisition and expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.
Behavioral Brain Research
2013 - Study ~ Probability and predictors of transition from abuse to dependence on alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
2013 - Study ~ Dysregulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor and associated signaling networks in brains of cocaine addicts
2013 - Study ~ Male and female rats differ in brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor density and function and in behavioural traits predisposing to drug addiction: effect of ovarian hormones.
Current Pharmaceutical Design
2013 - Study ~ Palmitoylethanolamide: from endogenous cannabimimetic substance to innovative medicine for the treatment of
2013 - Study ~ Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.
Drug Testing and Analysis
2013 - Study ~ Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.
2013 - Study ~ Impulsivity, variation in the cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes, and
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
2013 - Study ~ Neural responses to subliminally presented cannabis and other emotionally evocative cues in cannabis-dependent individuals. Psychopharmacology (Berl)
2013 - Study ~ Cannabis cue reactivity and craving among never, infrequent and heavy cannabis users.
2013 - Study ~ Cannabis withdrawal syndrome: An important diagnostic consideration in adolescents presenting with
International Journal of Eating Disorders
2013 - Study ~ Low-frequency stimulation evokes serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens and induces long-term depression via production of endocannabinoid.
Journal of Neurophysiology
2013 - Study ~ Further evidence for association of polymorphisms in the CNR1 gene with cocaine addiction: confirmation in an independent sample and meta-analysis.
Center for Innovation to Implementation
2013 - Study ~ Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs: A dispensary-based survey of substitution effect in Canadian medical
cannabis patients. Journal of Addiction Research & Theory
2012 - Study ~ Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence.
2012 - Study ~ A double-blind randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine in cannabis-dependent adolescents.
Journal of Pharmacology
US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health
2012 - Study ~ A genetic perspective on the proposed inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in DSM-5.
2012 - Study ~ Reduction of dependence to cannabinoids by GLT-1 activating property of the beta-lactam antibiotic.
2012 - Study ~ Human abuse potential and cognitive effects of taranabant, a cannabinoid 1 receptor inverse agonist: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, crossover study in recreational polydrug users.
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
2012 - Study ~ Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol: pharmacological properties, functional features, and emerging specificities of the two major endocannabinoids.
2011 - Study ~ Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent Adults.
University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America, University of Granada, Spain
2011 - Study ~ Abuse potential and psychoactive effects of δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol oromucosal spray (Sativex), a new cannabinoid medicine.
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
2011 - Study ~ Dronabinol for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
National Institutes of Health
Journal of Psychopharmacology
Medical Life Sciences
2010 - Study ~ Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment.
Harm Reduction Journal
2010 - News ~ Teen Pot Smoking Won't Lead to Other Drugs as Adults.
2009 - News ~ Four percent of adults worldwide using cannabis.
2009 - News ~ For pot users, visual and audible cues set off cravings.
2009 - News ~ The Surprising Effect Of Marijuana On Morphine Dependence.
2008 - Excerpt ~ Psychologic dependence can develop with chronic use, but very little physical dependence is clinically apparent.
2008 - News ~ Calling B.S. on the Idea of 'Marijuana Addiction'.
Common Sense for Drug Policy
2007 - Study ~ The fatty acid amide hydrolase C385A (P129T) missense variant in cannabis users: studies of drug use and dependence in Caucasians.
American Journal of Medical Genetics
2007 - Study ~ Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants.
Harm Reduction Journal
2007 - Study ~ Lack of behavioral sensitization after repeated exposure to THC in mice and comparison to methamphetamine.
2006 - Study ~ Confirming alcohol-moderated links between cannabis use and dependence in a national sample.
2005 - Study ~ Alcohol Consumption Moderates the Link Between Cannabis Use and Cannabis Dependence
American Psychological Association
2004 - Study ~ Human cannabinoid receptor 1: 5′ exons, candidate regulatory regions, polymorphisms, haplotypes and association
American Journal of Psychiatry
2004 - Study ~ Cannabis abuse is not a risk factor for treatment outcome in methadone maintenance treatment:
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
2003 - Study ~ Chronic Morphine Modulates the Contents of the Endocannabinoid, 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol, in Rat Brain.
2003 - Study ~ Does Cannabis Use Predict Poor Outcome for Heroin-Dependent Patients on Maintenance Treatment? A Review of Past Findings, and More Evidence Against.
Addiction, D.H. Epstein and K.L. Preston
2001 - Study ~ Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol releases and facilitates the effects of endogenous enkephalins: reduction in morphine withdrawal syndrome without change in rewarding effect.
European Journal of Neuroscience
1998 - Study ~ Anandamide, an Endogenous Cannabinoid, Has a Very Low Physical Dependence Potential.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
1998 - Study ~ Abuse potential of Dronabinol (Marinol).
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
1997 - Study ~ Cannabis dependence, withdrawal, and reinforcing effects among adolescents with conduct symptoms and
1996 - Study ~ Genetic differences in delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced facilitation of brain stimulation reward as measured by a rate-frequency curve-shift electrical brain stimulation paradigm in three different rat strains.
1980 - Study ~ An abstinence syndrome following chronic administration of delta-9-terahydrocannabinol in rhesus monkeys.