Are There Addiction Risks to Cannabis?
In 2010, 16,652 overdose deaths were directly related to prescribed medications.
In 2022, we have new, even deadlier drugs that are effecting millions globally. Add COVID-19 isolation into the mix, and what you have is an exponential number of people dying alone. Is methadone working? Is there a plan B?
While doctors prescribed these sometimes lethal narcotics, some estimates suggest that up to 70% of these medications get re-sold on the streets.
A study of 4000 indicates that cannabis discourages use of alcohol and hard drugs.
Cannabis Maintenance as Addiction Treatment?
Various 'Addiction' Global Medical Journal Articles Related to Cannabis
2014 - Australia: Study ~ Nabiximols as an Agonist Replacement Therapy During Cannabis Withdrawal.
2014 - France/ UK/ Spain / USA: Study ~ Pregnenolone Can Protect the Brain from Cannabis Intoxication.
2014 - USA: Study ~ Evaluation of WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats as a potential cannabinoid abuse liability model.
Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior
2014 - USA: Study ~ Potential role of N-acetylcysteine in the management of substance use disorders.
2014 - USA: Study ~ Prevalence and correlates of alcohol and cannabis use disorders in the United States: results from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.
2014 - USA: Study ~ Cannabis withdrawal in chronic, frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence within a closed residential environment.
American Journal of Addictions
2013 - Australia: Study ~ The Global Epidemiology and Contribution of Cannabis Use and Dependence to the Global Burden of Disease.PLOS
2013 - Germany: Abstract ~ Endocannabinoids underlie reconsolidation of hedonic memories in Wistar rats.
2013 - Netherlands: Study ~ Implicit Associations and Explicit Expectancies toward Cannabis in Heavy Cannabis Users and Controls.
Frontiers in Psychiatry
2013 - United Kingdom / Netherlands: Study ~ The Interplay between Parental Monitoring and the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene in Adolescent Cannabis Use.
2013 - USA: Study ~ Inhibition of FAAH and activation of PPAR: new approaches to the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and drug addiction.
2013 - USA/ France / Italy: Study ~ Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.
2013 - USA: Study ~ Impulsivity, variation in the cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes, and marijuana-related problems.
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
2013 - USA: Study ~ Neural responses to subliminally presented cannabis and other emotionally evocative cues in cannabis-dependent individuals.
2013 - USA: Study ~ Cannabis Cue Reactivity and Craving Among Never, Infrequent and Heavy Cannabis Users.
2013 - USA: Abstract ~ Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs: A dispensary-based survey of substitution effect in Canadian medical cannabis patients.
Journal of Addiction Research & Theory
2012 - Netherlands: Study ~ Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in reward processing in the human brain.
US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health
2012 - Netherlands / USA / Australia: Study ~ A genetic perspective on the proposed inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in the DSM-5.
2012 - USA: Study ~ Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence.
2012 - USA: Study ~ A double-blind randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine in cannabis-dependent adolescents.
American Journal of Psychiatry
2011 - United Kingdom: Study ~ The genetic basis of the endocannabinoid system and drug addiction in humans.
Journal of Psychopharmacology
2011 - USA: Study ~ Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent Adults.
2011 - USA: Study ~ Dronabinol for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
National Institutes of Health
2010 - USA: Study ~ Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment.
Harm Reduction Journal
2010 - USA: Article ~ Teen Pot Smoking Won't Lead to Other Drugs as Adults.
2009 - France: Study ~ Adolescent exposure to chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol blocks opiate dependence in maternally deprived rats.
2008 - Excerpt ~ Psychologic dependence can develop with chronic use, but very little physical dependence is clinically apparent.
Merck Manual Professional Version
2007 - USA: Study ~ Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants.
Harm Reduction Journal
2007 - USA: Study ~ Lack of behavioral sensitization after repeated exposure to THC in mice and comparison to methamphetamine.
2005 - USA: Study ~ Endocannabinoid release from midbrain dopamine neurons: a potential substrate for cannabinoid receptor antagonist treatment of addiction.
2004 - USA: Study ~ Review of the Validity and Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal Syndrome.
American Journal of Psychiatry
2003 - Italy: Study ~ Chronic Morphine Modulates the Contents of the Endocannabinoid, 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol, in Rat Brain.
2003 - United Kingdom: Study ~ Does Cannabis Use Predict Poor Outcome for Heroin-Dependent Patients on Maintenance Treatment? A Review of Past Findings, and More Evidence Against.
Addiction, D.H. Epstein and K.L. Preston