Marijuana strains can be pure or hybrid varieties, usually derived from the three major species of cannabis: indica, sativa, and ruderalis. Different strains have been bred to intensify certain characteristics of cannabis.
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The question of whether a clinically significant marijuana (cannabis) withdrawal syndrome exists remains controversial. In spite of the mounting clinical and preclinical evidence suggesting that such a syndrome exists (Beardsley et al., 1986; Budney et al., 2001; Holson et al., 1989; Huestis et al., 2001), the DSM-IV does not include marijuana withdrawal as a diagnostic category.

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME and cannabis studies completed

1980 - Study ~ An Abstinence Syndrome Following Chronic Administration of Delta-9-terahydrocannabinol in Rhesus Monkeys.

1984 - Study ~ Marijuana withdrawal syndrome in a woman.

1987 - Excerpt ~ Merck Manual - Marijuana (Cannabis).

1995 - Study ~ Cannabinoid precipitated withdrawal by the selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR 141716A.

1997 - Study ~ Cannabis dependence, withdrawal, and reinforcing effects among adolescents with conduct symptoms and substance use disorders.

2001 - Study ~ Marijuana abstinence effects in marijuana smokers maintained in their home environment.

2001 - Study ~ Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol releases and facilitates the effects of endogenous enkephalins: reduction in morphine withdrawal syndrome without change in rewarding effect.

2002 - Study ~ Marijuana withdrawal among adults seeking treatment for marijuana dependence.

2003 - Study ~ The Time Course and Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal.

2004 - Study ~ Review of the Validity and Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal Syndrome.

2005 - Study ~ Decrease in prostaglandin level is a prerequisite for the expression of cannabinoid withdrawal: a quasi abstinence approach.

2008 - Study ~ A Within-Subject Comparison of Withdrawal Symptoms During Abstinence From Cannabis, Tobacco, and Both Substances.

2008 - Study ~ Cannabis withdrawal in the United States: results from NESARC.

2008 - Excerpt ~ Merck Manual - Marijuana (Cannabis).

2008- Study ~ The FAAH inhibitor URB-597 ameliorates cannabinoid withdrawal in mice.

2008 - News ~ Pot, Tobacco Withdrawal Equally Rough.

2009 - Study ~ Withdrawal Phenomena and Dependence Syndrome After the Consumption of "Spice Gold".

2009 - Study ~ Actions of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis.

2009 - Study ~ Cannabis withdrawal severity and short-term course among cannabis-dependent adolescent and young adult inpatients.

2010- Study ~ Rimonabant-induced Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol withdrawal in rhesus monkeys: discriminative stimulus effects and other withdrawal signs.

2010 - Study ~ Anxiety-like effects of SR141716-precipitated delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol withdrawal in mice in the elevated plus-maze.

2011 - Study ~ Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

2011- Study ~ The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB 597: interactions with anandamide in rhesus monkeys.

 

 

 

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