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TERPENES & Cannabis studies completed

Overview by J Hatridge

Terpenes are everywhere. They are in all plants that we eat, and that includes the plants that we smoke.


Terpenes are what gives flavor and aroma to everything around us. Insects produce terpenes as a defense mechanism, to leave trails, as well as to attract mates.


The relationship between terpenes and cannabis is intense and important. Terpenes bind to receptors in our brains similar to the way THC and CBD does. 


For an example, terpenes give us the flavor and aroma of highly sought after cannabis strains like Pineapple Express, Blueberry, Chocolate Kush, or even Sour Cream.

a-pinene

Responsible for a lot of the smell of pine trees, alpha-pinene is found in coniferous trees and rosemary. It is a bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and is thought to be responsible for aiding memory.


Alpha-bisabolol

Found in German chamomile, it has a sweet floral aroma.


Beta-Caryophyllene

Found in plants such as black pepper and cloves, Caryophyllene accounts for the spiciness flavor. It has anxiolytic, antidepressant, and neuroprotective properties.


D-Limonene

Cold-press extracted from the rinds of citrus fruits, Limonene has a strong orange smell has been used to treat anxiety and depression.


Linalool

Produced most famously by the Lavender plant, Linalool is a very aromatic chemical that is known to cause a relaxing effect in aromatherapy.


Myrcene

Found in chamomile and ripe mangoes, myrcene is said to have mild sedative and analgesic effects.

Science & Research

General

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740396/

Review of studies regarding NSAIDs: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5471470/


D-Limonene


Dosage:

Anywhere between .15ml/kg and possibly in lower doses around 2g. Jarrow sells 1g capsules of d-limonene. 


Claimed Benefits:

Antioxidant, anti-cancer, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic


Papers:

Human gastric carcinoma: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4152785/

Early stage breast cancer: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3692564/   2g limonene/day

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4670880/

Gastric cancer: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4572353/  1% D-Limonene in solution, 15 ml/kg every other day - 10ml of actual limonene daily if you weigh around 70kg.

Rat mammary tumors: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1968920/10% of diet

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3080636

beta-pinene and D-Limonene kill herpes cells (?!): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393490/

Antispasmodic quality: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26487887


Beta-Caryophyllene (Provided by clove)

Caryophyllene Oxide (Provided by clove)


alpha-Pinene


Dosage: 10-100mg/kg


Claimed Benefits:

Anti-inflammatory, Antiulcerogenic, Broncholdilator 


Papers:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26119957

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25709221    10-100mg/kg

Protective effects of alpha-pinene in mice with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22982349

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28724214

Stress-based hyperthermia: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14532699


Notes: Great candidate for supplement to handle stomach issues and ulcers. 


beta-Pinene


Dosage: 100-300mg/kg as an antidepressant


Claimed benefits:


Papers:

beta-pinene and D-Limonene kill herpes cells (?!): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393490/

Antidepressant: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867633   100-300mg/kg


Gamma-Terpinene


Claimed Benefits:


Papers:

Inhibition of lipid peroxidation: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12696969

Modules acute inflammatory response: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26132854


Alpha-Terpinene


Claimed Benefits:


Papers:

Trypanocidal effect: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773165  .335mL/kg-1ml/kg

Potential antioxidant: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15137824


Reasons to avoid: 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400424


Terpineol


Dosage: 25-100mg/kg


Claimed Benefits:

antibiotic, antioxidant, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, sedative


Papers:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540069

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24947163

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27231091   25mg-100mg/kg

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4230123/


Terpinolene


Dosage: 


Claimed benefits:

Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Sedative


Papers:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23339024

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21287406   Sedative Inhalation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25764982

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590926   25mg/L - 70mg/L In Vitro

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084350  50mg/L - 100mg/L in Vitro


Geraniol


Claimed Benefits:

Anti-spasmodic, antioxidant, Neuroprotectant, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral


Papers:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26487887  Needs to be tested in vivo - 0.8 nl / ml - a-terpinene and limonene were major parts, geraniol just along for the ride

Protection against Cardiovascular Complications: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28178614



Guaiol


Claimed benefits:

Anti-inflammatory


Papers: 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20645723


Linalool


Claimed Benefits:

Anxiolytic, Antidepressant, Sedative, Antiinflammatory, Anti-epileptic, Analgesic


Papers:

Anti-Inflammatory: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12587692

Inflammation: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26040565

Anxiolytic: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21925533

Anxiolytic: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26151006

Decrease aggression, anxiolytic: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962290

Seizures: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25532295

Seizures: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299105

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832326

Antidepressant: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867633

hypocholesterolaemic effect: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17697428

Central Nervous System: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28579958


alpha-Bisabolol


Dosage: 50-100mg/kg


Claimed Benefits:

anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-irritant, antioxidant, anti-microbial


Papers:


Skin Inflammation: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24894548

Glioma Cell death: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28373446

Skin whitening effect: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20642768

Gastroprotection against lesions: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20041801

More gastroprotection: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19013222  200-400mg/kg


Notes:

Appears to be a good gastroprotectant.


trans/cis-Ocimene


Claimed benefits:

Decongestant, Antiviral, Antifungal, Antiseptic


Papers:


Valencene


Claimed Benefits:

anti-inflammatory


Papers: 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26967731

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21843620


Sabinene


Claimed benefits: 

Cytotoxic mediator


Papers:

Extract containing sabinene was comparable to doxorubicin (chemotherapy drug): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514509


Camphene


Dosage: 30 µg/gr in rats


Claimed Benefits:

hypocholesterolemic, hypotriglyceridemic, heapatic steatosis protection, antinociceptive, hypolipidermic


Papers:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22073134  30 µg/gr  in rats for hypolipidermic effect

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23818423

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23724298

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26784701


Myrcene


Dosage: 100-400mg/kg

Claimed Benefits:

Antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, Sedative, Analgesic, Antibiotic


Papers:

Inflammation: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622554

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18498714  200-400mg/kg

Analgesic: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1753786

Sedative: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12587690


Triterpenoids

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153165/#B125-toxins-02-02428


Terpene Pie Chart