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Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function. In the case of an ongoing insult (a neurodegenerative insult) the relative preservation of neuronal integrity implies a reduction in the rate of neuronal loss over time, which can be expressed as a differential equation. It is a widely explored treatment option for many central nervous system (CNS) disorders including neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury.

Cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and HIV dementia.

NEUROPROTECTANT and cannabis studies completed

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Undated - News ~ Marijuana Protects Your Brain 

Undated - StudyThe use of cannabinoids in MS: is it evidence based?

2000 - Study ~ Neuroprotective Antioxidants from Marijuana

2001 - Study ~ Neuroprotection by Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, the Main Active Compound in
Marijuana, against Ouabain-Induced In Vivo Excitotoxicity

2001 - Study ~ The cannabinoids: an overview. Therapeutic implications in vomiting and nausea

cancer chemotherapy, in appetite promotion, in multiple sclerosis and in neuroprotection.

2001 - Study ~ Control of the cell survival/death decision by cannabinoids.

2002 - Study ~ Cannabinoids and Brain Injury: Therapeutic Inplications

2002 - Study ~ Characterization of the diarylether sulfonylester (-)-(R)-3-(2-hydroxymethylindanyl-4-
oxy)phenyl-4,4,4-trifluoro-1-sulfonate (BAY 38-7271) as a potent cannabinoid receptor

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agonist with neuroprotective properties.

2002 - Study ~ Cannabinoids protect astrocytes from ceramide-induced apoptosis through the
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway.

2002 - Study ~The endocannabinoid system: function in survival of the embryo, the newborn and the

2002 - Study ~ Cannabinoids and cell fate.

2003 - Study ~ Neurons on Cannabinoids: Dead or Alive?

2003 - Study ~ Neuroprotective Effect of(−)Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in N-Methyl-d-
Aspartate-Induced Retinal Neurotoxicity

2003 - Study ~ Neuroprotective and brain edema-reducing efficacy of the novel cannabinoid receptor
agonist BAY 38-7271.

2003 - News ~ Cardiovascular Effects of Cannabis

2004 - Study ~ Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis
sativa, on β-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells

2004 - Study ~ Cannabinoids As Neuroprotective Agents in Traumatic Brain Injury

2004 - News ~ Marijuana-like compounds may aid array of debiliating conditions ranging from
Parkinson's to pain

2005 - Study ~ Protective effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced AF5
cell death

2005 - Study ~ Effects on cell viability.

2005 - Study ~ Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in
vitro: relevance to Parkinson's disease.

2005 - Study ~ Cannabinoid-receptor 1 null mice are susceptible to neurofilament damage and caspase 3

2005 - Study ~ Marijuana might cause new cell growth in the brain

2006 - Study ~ Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disrupts endocannabinoid-mediated

2006 - Study ~ The Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor as a Target for Inflammation-Dependent

2006 - Study ~ Characterization of the neuroprotective effect of the cannabinoid agonist WIN-55212 in
an in vitro model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in newborn rats.

2006 - Study ~ The endocannabinoid anandamide protects neurons during CNS inflammation by
induction of MKP-1 in microglial cells.

2006 - Study ~ Endocannabinoids: a new family of lipid mediators involved in the regulation of neural
cell development.

2007 - Study ~ Opposing control of cannabinoid receptor stimulation on amyloid-beta-induced reactive
gliosis: in vitro and in vivo evidence.
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2007 - Study ~ Increases in expression of 14-3-3 eta and 14-3-3 zeta transcripts during neuroprotection
induced by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in AF5 cells

2007 - Study ~ The endocannabinoid system in targeting inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases

2007 - Study ~ Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson's
disease: importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties.

2007 - Study ~ Neuroprotective and Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effects of (-)Delta-
Tetrahydrocannabinol in a Rat Model of Glaucoma.

2007 - Study ~ Excitotoxicity in a chronic model of multiple sclerosis: Neuroprotective effects of
cannabinoids through CB1 and CB2 receptor activation.

2008 - Study ~ CB2 cannabinoid receptors as an emerging target for demyelinating diseases: from
neuroimmune interactions to cell replacement strategies

2008 - Study ~ Endocannabinoids in the retina: From marijuana to neuroprotection.

2008 - Study ~ Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol Protects Neurons by Limiting COX-2

2008 - Study ~ Cannabinoid-mediated neuroprotection, not immunosuppression, may be more relevant to
multiple sclerosis

2008 - Study ~ Cannabidiol in medicine: a review of its therapeutic potential in CNS disorders

2008 - Study ~ Role of CB2 receptors in neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids.

2008 - News ~ Use Of Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids In The Treatment Of Neurodegenerative

2009 - Study ~ Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?

2009 - Study ~ Unconventional neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection

2009 - Study ~ Cannabidiol targets mitochondria to regulate intracellular Ca2+ levels.

2009 - Study ~ Pretreatment with electroacupuncture induces rapid tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia
through regulation of endocannabinoid system.

2009 - Study ~ Effects of cannabidiol on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal
model of mania

2009 - Study ~ The nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol modulates and directly activates alpha-1
and alpha-1-Beta glycine receptor function

2009 - Study ~ Oleoylethanolamide exerts partial and dose-dependent neuroprotection of substantia nigra
dopamine neurons.

2009 - NewsMedical Marijuana and Peripheral Neuropathy

2010 - Study ~ Neuroprotective potential of CB1 receptor agonists in an in vitro model of Huntington's

2010 - Study ~ Learning and memory performances in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana:
interactive effects.

2010 - Study ~ The effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on
damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis

2010 - Study ~ The Neuroprotective Effect of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist (WIN55,212-2) in
Paraoxon Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells and N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor

2010 - Study ~ THC Prevents MDMA Neurotoxicity in Mice.

2010 - Study ~ The neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic-
ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB(2) and adenosine receptors.

2011 - Patent ~ Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol protects neurons against β-amyloid insults.

2011 - Study ~ Cannabinoid receptor agonist protects cultured dopaminergic neurons from the death by
the proteasomal dysfunction.

2011 - Study ~ Inhibition of COX-2 expression by endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol is mediated
via PPAR-γ

2011 - Study ~ N-arachidonoyl--serine is neuroprotective after traumatic brain injury by reducing

2011 - Study ~ Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Protects Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons against
MPTP Neurotoxicity by Inhibiting Microglial Activation.

2011 - Study ~ Cannabinoid-containing plant extracts as neuroprotective agents

2011 - Study ~ Overexpression of CB2 cannabinoid receptors results in neuroprotection against
behavioral and neurochemical alterations induced by intracaudate administration of 6-

2011 - Study ~ Pharmacological activation/inhibition of the cannabinoid system affects alcohol
withdrawal-induced neuronal hypersensitivity to excitotoxic insults.

2011 - Study ~ Immunomodulatory properties of kappa opioids and synthetic cannabinoids in HIV-1

2011 - News ~ New metabolic pathway for controlling brain inflammation

2012 - Study ~ Update on the role of cannabinoid receptors after ischemic stroke.

2012 - Study ~ Palmitoylethanolamide exerts neuroprotective effects in mixed neuroglial cultures and
organotypic hippocampal slices via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α.

2012 - Study ~ Dimerization with Cannabinoid Receptors Allosterically Modulates Delta Opioid
Receptor Activity during Neuropathic Pain

2012 - Study ~ Contribution of Hypothermia and CB(1) Receptor Activation to Protective Effects of
TAK-937, a Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist, in Rat Transient MCAO Model.

2012 - Study ~ Early Endogenous Activation of CB1 and CB2 Receptors after Spinal Cord Injury Is a
Protective Response Involved in Spontaneous Recovery

2012 - Study ~ Palmitoylethanolamide exerts neuroprotective effects in mixed neuroglial cultures and
organotypic hippocampal slices via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α

2012 - Study ~ Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell

2012 - Study ~ Intrinsic Up-Regulation of 2-AG Favors an Area Specific Neuronal Survival in Different
In Vitro Models of Neuronal Damage

2012 - Study ~ Review article: The endocannabinoid system in normal and pathological brain ageing

2012 - Study ~ Prevention of Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy Through Activation of the Central
Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor System

2012 - Study ~ Cannabinoid type 2 receptor activation downregulates stroke-induced classic and
alternative brain macrophage/microglial activation concomitant to neuroprotection.

2012 - Study ~ CB1 Agonist ACEA Protects Neurons and Reduces the Cognitive Impairment of
AβPP/PS1 Mice

2012 - Study ~ CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation rescues amyloid β-induced alterations in behaviour
and intrinsic electrophysiological properties of rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurones.

2012 - Study ~ Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol: Pharmacological Properties, Functional
Features, and Emerging Specificities of the Two Major Endocannabinoids

2012 - Study ~ Overexpression of CB2 cannabinoid receptors results in neuroprotection against
behavioral and neurochemical alterations induced by intracaudate administration of 6-

2012 - Study ~ Δ(9) -THC exerts a direct neuroprotective effect in a human cell culture model of
Parkinson's disease.

2012 - Study ~ Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this

2012 - Study ~ Single-dose Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Oral Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in
Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

2012 - Study ~ Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and
cannabidiol in MPP(+) affected murine mesencephalic cultures.

2012 - Study ~ Sativex-like Combination of Phytocannabinoids is Neuroprotective in Malonate-Lesioned
Rats, an Inflammatory Model of Huntington's Disease: Role of CB(1) and CB(2)


2012 - Study ~ A cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist attenuates blood-brain barrier damage and
neurodegeneration in a murine model of traumatic brain injury.

2012 - Study ~ A Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple

2012 - Study ~ Cannabinoid Receptor Subtypes 1 and 2 Mediate Long-Lasting Neuroprotection and
Improve Motor Behaviour Deficits After Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia.

2012 - Study ~ WIN55,212-2 protects oligodendrocyte precursor cells in stroke penumbra following
permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

2012 - Study ~ WIN55, 212-2 promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and improve
remyelination through regulation of the phosphorylation level of the ERK 1/2 via
cannabinoid receptor 1 after stroke-induced demyelination.

2012 - Study ~ Palmitoylethanolamide is a new possible pharmacological treatment for the inflammation
associated with trauma.

2012 - Study ~ Specific inhibition of the JNK pathway promotes locomotor recovery and
neuroprotection after mouse spinal cord injury

2012 - Study ~ Long-term behavioral and biochemical effects of an ultra-low dose of Δ(9)-
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): neuroprotection and ERK signaling.

2012 - News ~ Researchers study neuroprotective properties in cannabis

2012 - News ~ Cannabinoids May Help Prevent MDMA induced brain damage

2013 - Study ~ Molecular evidence for the involvement of PPAR-δ and PPAR-γ in anti-inflammatory
and neuroprotective activities of palmitoylethanolamide after spinal cord trauma

2013 - Study ~ Neuroprotective effects of Cannabis sativa leaves extracts on α-Motoneurons density
after sciatic nerve injury in rats

2013 - Study ~ HINT1 protein cooperates with cannabinoid 1 receptor to negatively regulate glutamate
NMDA receptor activity

2013 - Study ~ CB2 Receptor Agonists Protect Human Dopaminergic Neurons against Damage from
HIV-1 gp120.

2013 - Study ~ Molecular targets underlying SUMO-mediated neuroprotection in brain ischemia

2013 - Study ~ A new co-ultramicronized composite including palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin to
prevent neuroinflammation in spinal cord injury

2013 - Study ~ Does the neuroprotective role of anandamide display diurnal variations?

2013 - Study ~ Palmitoylethanolamide in Homeostatic and Traumatic Central Nervous System Injuries

2013 - Study ~ Neuroglial Roots of Neurodegenerative Diseases: Therapeutic Potential of
Palmitoylethanolamide in Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

2013 - Study ~ Activation of the CB(2) receptor system reverses amyloid-induced memory deficiency.

2013 - Study ~ Nicotine-Induced Neuroprotection Against Ischemic Injury Involves Activation of
Endocannabinoid System in Rats

2013 - Study ~ The neuroprotective role of endocannabinoids against chemical-induced injury and other
adverse effects.

2013 - Study ~ Neuroprotective effects of topical CB1 agonist WIN 55212-2 on Retinal ganglion cells
after acute rise in intraocular pressure induced ischemia in rat.

2013 - Study ~ Mechanisms Of Cannabidiol Neuroprotection In Hypoxic-Ischemic Newborn Pigs: Role
Of 5HT1A And CB2 Receptors.

2013 - Study ~ Glia and Mast Cells as Targets for Palmitoylethanolamide, an Anti-inflammatory and
Neuroprotective Lipid Mediator.

2013 - Study ~ CB1 and CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists Prevent Minocycline-Induced
Neuroprotection Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

2013 - Study ~ Neuroprotection and reduction of glial reaction by cannabidiol treatment after sciatic
nerve transection in neonatal rats.

2013 - Study ~ Cannabinoid Effects on β Amyloid Fibril and Aggregate Formation, Neuronal and
Microglial-Activated Neurotoxicity In Vitro

2013 - Study ~ CB2 cannabinoid agonist enhanced neurogenesis in GFAP/Gp120 transgenic mice
displaying deficits in neurogenesis.

2013 - Study ~ The Influence of Cannabinoids on Generic Traits of Neurodegeneration.

2013 - Study ~ Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration
in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder.

2013 - Study ~ Cannabidiol Normalizes Capase 3, Synatophsin, and Mitochondrial Fission Protein
DNM1L Expression Levels in Rats with Brain Iron Overload: Implications for Neuroprotection

2013 - Study ~ Neuroimmmune interactions of cannabinoids in neurogenesis: focus on interleukin-1β
(IL-1β) signalling.

2013 - Study ~ Cannabidiol Promotes Amyloid Precursor Protein Ubiquitination and Reduction of Beta
Amyloid Expression in SHSY5YAPP+ Cells Through PPARγ Involvement.

2013 - News ~ Low Doses of THC (Cannabis) Can Halt Brain Damage, Study Suggests

2013 - News ~ Activation of cortical type 2 cannabinoid receptors ameliorates ischemic brain injury

2013 - News ~ Chemicals in marijuana 'protect nervous system' against MS

2014 - Study ~ Regulatory role of the Cannabinoid-2 receptor in stress-induced neuroinflammation in

2014 - Study ~ Trans-Caryophyllene Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Neuroinflammatory Responses by
Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in Microglia.

2014 - Study ~ Neuroprotective effects of the cannabinoid agonist HU210 on retinal degeneration.