Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables, including .
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction involving the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables, including hemp seed.
ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES & Cannabis studies completed
Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
The neuroprotective actions of cannabidiol and other cannabinoids were examined in ratcortical neuron cultures exposed to toxic levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate toxicity was reduced by both cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive constituent of marijuana, and the psychotropic cannabinoid (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Cannabinoids protected equally well against neurotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, 2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid receptors, or kainate receptors. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-induced toxicity has been shown to be calcium dependent; this study demonstrates that 2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid/kainate receptor-type neurotoxicity is also calcium-dependent, partly mediated by voltage sensitive calcium channels.
The neuroprotection observed with cannabidiol and THC was unaffected by cannabinoid receptor antagonist, indicating it to be cannabinoid receptor independent. Previous studies have shown that glutamate toxicity may be prevented by antioxidants. Cannabidiol, THC and several synthetic cannabinoids all were demonstrated to be antioxidants by cyclic voltametry. Cannabidiol and THC also were shown to prevent
hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage as well as or better than other antioxidants in a chemical (Fenton reaction) system and neuronal cultures. Cannabidiol was more protective against glutamate neurotoxicity than either ascorbate or α-tocopherol, indicating it to be a potent antioxidant. These data also suggest that the naturally occurring, nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol, may be a potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative neurological disorders such as cerebral ischemia.
|ROS||reactive oxygen species|
Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity
Kim BJ, Kim JH, Kim HP, Heo MY
Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity. [Journal Article]
Int J Cosmet Sci 1997 Dec; 19(6):299-307.
Methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system.
The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant.
Cannabinoids protect cells from oxidative cell death: a receptor-independent mechanism
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Jun;293(3):807-12.
Department of Pharmacology, Joan & Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Serum is required for the survival and growth of most animal cells. In serum-free medium, B lymphoblastoid cells and fibroblasts die after 2 days.
We report that submicromolar concentrations of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Delta(8)-THC, cannabinol, or cannabidiol, but not WIN 55,212-2, prevented serum-deprived cell death. Delta(9)-THC also synergized with platelet-derived growth factor in activating resting NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.
The cannabinoids' growth supportive effect did not correlate with their ability to bind to known cannabinoid receptors and showed no stereoselectivity, suggesting a nonreceptor-mediated pathway. Direct measurement of oxidative stress revealed that cannabinoids prevented serum-deprived cell death by antioxidation.
The antioxidative property of cannabinoids was confirmed by their ability to antagonize oxidative stress and consequent cell death induced by the retinoid anhydroretinol. Therefore, cannabinoids act as antioxidants to modulate cell survival and
Cannabidiol in medicine: a review of its therapeutic potential in CNS disorders
Cannabidiol in medicine: a review of its therapeutic potential in CNS disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
Phytother Res 2008 Oct 9.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotropic component of the glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa. It displays a plethora of actions including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, antipsychotic, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties.
However, it is well established that CBD produces its biological effects without exerting significant intrinsic activity upon cannabinoid receptors. For this reason, CBD lacks the unwanted psychotropic effects characteristic of marijuana derivatives, so representing one of the bioactive constituents of Cannabis sativa with the highest potential for therapeutic use.
The present review reports the pharmacological profile of CBD and summarizes results from preclinical and clinical studies utilizing CBD, alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids, for the treatment of a number of CNS disorders. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
US Patent 6630507 - Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants
Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as , Parkinson's disease and HIV dementia.
Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidoil, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses useful in the method of the present invention. A particular disclosed class of cannabinoids useful as neuroprotective antioxidants is formula (I) wherein the R group is independently selected from the group consisting of H, CH3, and COCH3. ##STR1##
Neuroprotective pharmaceutical compositions of 4-phenylpinene derivatives and certain novel 4-phenylpinene compounds
Patent #: 5434295
Issued on: 07/18/1995
Inventor: Mechoulam, et al.
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