ANTI-BACTERIAL PROPERTIES & cannabis studies
While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have evolved over the years to mean two different things.
Science & Research
Science & Research
2013 - News ~ 5 Health Benefits Of Cannabichromene (CBC)
2012 - Study ~ Effect of extraction conditions on total polyphenol contents, antioxidant and
antimicrobial activities of Cannabis sativa L
2011 - Study ~ Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils
2008 - Study - Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa
2008 - News - Killing bacteria with cannabis
2008 - News - Chemicals in Marijuana May Fight MRSA
2008 - News ~ Pot is good for you? Marijuana fights the superbugs
2008 - News ~ New biologically active compounds from cannabis2008 - News ~ A New MRSA Defense
1989 - Study ~ Antiinflammatory and antimicrobial compounds and compositions
United States Patent 4837228
1958 - Study - Antibacterial preparation from hemp (Cannabis sativa)
1958 - Study - Hemp
(Cannabis sativa)-an antibiotic drug. II. Methods and results of
bacteriological investigations and preliminary clinical experiences
1955 - Study ~ HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT : Methods and results of the bacteriological experiments
Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa
Universit del Piemonte Orientale.
Consorzio per lo Studio dei Metaboliti Secondari.
University of London.
Centro Ricerca Colture Industriali.
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has long been known to contain antibacterial cannabinoids, whose potential to address antibiotic resistance has not yet been investigated.
All five major cannabinoids (cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and cannabinol showed potent activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of current clinical relevance.
Activity was remarkably tolerant to the nature of the prenyl moiety, to its relative position compared to the n-pentyl moiety (abnormal cannabinoids), and to carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety (pre-cannabinoids).
Conversely, methylation and acetylation of the phenolic hydroxyls, esterification of the carboxylic group of pre-cannabinoids, and introduction of a second prenyl moiety were all detrimental for antibacterial activity.
Taken together, these observations suggest that the prenyl moiety of cannabinoids serves mainly as a modulator of lipid affinity for the olivetol core, a per se poorly active antibacterial pharmacophore, while their high potency definitely suggests a specific, but yet elusive, mechanism of activity.
Results and Discussion
Compounds 1c−g, 3c−e, 3g, and 9 exhibited MIC values of >128 μg/mL for all organisms in which they were evaluated.
Compound 11 exhibited MIC values of >256 μg/mL for all organisms in which they were evaluated.
This article references 30 other publications.
- 1. Caiffa, W. T., Vlahov, D., Graham, N. M. H., Astemborski, J., Solomon, L., Nelson, K. E., and Munoz, A. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. 1994 150 1593 1598
- 3. (a) Krjci, Z. Lekarske Listy 1952 7 500 503
; Chem. Abstr. 1952, 48, 78326[PubMed](d) Rabinovich, A. S., Aizenman, B. L., and Zelepukha, S. I. Mikrobiol. Zh 1959 21 40 48
(PubMed ID 14435632)[PubMed]
- 4. Schultz, O. E., and Haffner, G. A. Z. Naturforsch. 1959 14b 98 100[CAS]
- 7. Van Klingeren, B., and Ten Ham, M. Lab. Chemother. Natl. Inst. Public Health 1976 42 9 12
; Chem. Abstr. 1976, 85, 14622[CAS]
- 17. (a) Mechoulam, R., McCallum, N. K., and Burstein, S. Chem. Rev. 1976 76 75 112
- 18. (a) Ghosh, R., Todd, A. R., and Wilkinson, S. J. Chem. Soc. 1940 1393 1396[CrossRef]
- 23. Appendino, G..
- 24. Bancroft, E. A. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2007 298 1803[CrossRef]
- 29. Vailancourt, V., and Albizati, K. F. J. Org. Chem. 1992 57 3627 3631
Killing bacteria with cannabis
Pharmacists and chemists have found another use for the multipurpose cannabis as a source of antibacterial chemicals for multidrug resistant bacteria. Ironically, inhaling cannabis is known to damage the lung's ability to fend off invading pathogens, but the ingredients in cannabis, particularly the cannabinoids, have antiseptic properties. Although scattered research has been conducted since the 1950s, no comprehensive study existed that relates the structure of cannabinoids with antibacterial activity. Giovanni Appendino, Simon Gibbons, and coworkers attempted to remedy that problem by examining the activity of five common cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives.
Five of the most common cannabinoids.
All five cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN) were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA that plagued U.K. hospitals. CBD and CBG have the most potential for consumer use because they are nonpsychotropic.
Besides identifying antibacterial capability, the researchers wanted to figure out why these cannabinoids are so good at killing bacteria. They obviously are very effective at specifically targeting some vital process in the bacteria. Unfortunately, even after extensive work at modifying the cannabinoids and comparing their activities, that targeting mechanism remains a mystery. The scientists were able to figure out that the position of the n-pentyl chain (orange) relative to the terpenoid moiety (blue) serves to control lipid affinity.
These cannabinoids are promising enough to warrant rigorous clinical trials. They are applicable as topical antiseptics, biodegradable antibacterial compounds for cosmetics, and systematic antibacterial agents.
Chemicals in Marijuana May Fight MRSA
WebMD Health News
Sept. 4, 2008 -- Chemicals in marijuana may be useful in fighting MRSA, a kind of staph bacterium that is resistant to certain antibiotics.
Researchers in Italy and the U.K. tested five major marijuana chemicals called cannabinoids on different strains of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). All five showed germ-killing activity against the MRSA strains in lab tests. Some synthetic cannabinoids also showed germ-killing capability. The scientists note the cannabinoids kill bacteria in a different way than traditional antibiotics, meaning they might be able to bypass bacterial resistance.
At least two of the cannabinoids don't have mood-altering effects, so there could be a way to use these substances without creating the high of marijuana.
MRSA, like other staph infections, can be spread through casual physical contact or through contaminated objects. It is commonly spread from the hands of someone who has it. This could be in a health care setting, though there have also been high-profile cases of community-acquired MRSA.
It is becoming more common for healthy people to get MRSA, which is often spread between people who have close contact with one another, such as members of a sports team. Symptoms often include skin infections, such as boils. MRSA can become serious, particularly for people who are weak or ill.
In the study, published in the Journal of Natural Products, researchers call for further study of the antibacterial uses of marijuana. There are "currently considerable challenges with the treatment of infections caused by strains of clinically relevant bacteria that show multi-drug resistance," the researchers write. New antibacterials are urgently needed, but only one new class of antibacterial has been introduced in the last 30 years. "Plants are still a substantially untapped source of antimicrobial agents," the researchers conclude.
Cannabis Compounds Reduce Multi-Drug Resistant Infections
Cannabis Science, Inc. (OTCBB: GFON). Dr. Robert Melamede, PhD., Director and Chief Science Officer, reported to the Board on the current state of research into the use of natural plant cannabinoids to reduce the spread of drug-resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA), and the prospects for development of topical whole-cannabis treatments.
According to studies published in the Journal of the American Medical Association and by the Center for Disease Control in 2007, MRSA is responsible for more than 18,500 hospital-stay related deaths each year, and increased direct healthcare costs of as much as $9.7 billion.
Dr. Melamede stated, "Research into use of whole cannabis extracts and multi-cannabinoid compounds has provided the scientific rationale for medical marijuana's efficacy in treating some of the most troubling diseases mankind now faces, including infectious diseases such as the flu and HIV, autoimmune diseases such as ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes, neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's, stroke and brain injury, as well as numerous forms of cancer. One common element of these diseases is that patients often suffer extended hospital stays, risking development of various Staphyloccus infections including MRSA. A topical, whole-cannabis treatment for these infections is a functional complement to our cannabis extract-based lozenge."
Investigators at Italy's Universita del Piemonte Orientale and Britain's University of London, School of Pharmacy reported in the Journal of Natural Products that five cannabinoids - THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN - "showed potent antibacterial activity" and "exceptional" antibacterial activity against two epidemic MRSA occurring in UK hospitals. The authors concluded: "Although the use of cannabinoids as systemic antibacterial agents awaits rigorous clinical trials, … their topical application to reduce skin colonization by MRSA seems promising. … Cannabis sativa … represents an interesting source of antibacterial agents to address the problem of multidrug resistance in MRSA and other pathogenic bacteria."
About Cannabis Science, Inc.
Cannabis Science, Inc. is at the forefront of medical marijuana research and development. The Company works with world authorities on phytocannabinoid science targeting critical illnesses, and adheres to scientific methodologies to develop, produce, and commercialize phytocannabinoid-based pharmaceutical products. In sum, we are dedicated to the creation of cannabis-based medicines, both with and without psychoactive properties, to treat disease and the symptoms of disease, as well as for general health maintenance.
This Press Release includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Act of 1934. A statement containing works such as "anticipate," "seek," intend," "believe," "plan," "estimate," "expect," "project," "plan," or similar phrases may be deemed "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Some or all of the events or results anticipated by these forward-looking statements may not occur. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include the future U.S. and global economies, the impact of competition, and the Company's reliance on existing regulations regarding the use and development of cannabis-based drugs. Cannabis Science, Inc. does not undertake any duty nor does it intend to update the results of these forward-looking statements.
Cannabis Science, Inc.
Biologically Active Cannabinoids from High-Potency Cannabis sativa
Biologically Active Cannabinoids from High-Potency Cannabis sativa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
J Nat Prod 2009 Apr 3.
Nine new cannabinoids (1-9) were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. Their structures were identified as (+/-)-4-acetoxycannabichromene (1), (+/-)-3''-hydroxy-Delta((4'',5''))-cannabichromene (2), (-)-7-hydroxycannabichromane (3), (-)-7R-cannabicoumarononic acid A (4), 5-acetyl-4-hydroxycannabigerol (5), 4-acetoxy-2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentylphenol (6), 8-hydroxycannabinol (7), 8-hydroxycannabinolic acid A (8), and 2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentyl-1,4-benzoquinone (9) through 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known sterol beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-6'-acetate was isolated for the first time from cannabis. Compounds 6 and 7 displayed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively, while 5 displayed strong antileishmanial activity.More from this journal Journal of natural products
Antibacterial preparation from hemp (Cannabis sativa) (1958)
Ferenczy, L.; Gracza, L.; Jakobey, I.
Naturwissenschaften (1958), 45, 188 CODEN: NATWAY; ISSN: 0028-1042. English.
Exts. of resinous organs of the plant gives an active antibacterial compound (I). I has little activity against gram-neg. bacteria, yeasts, or molds, but is active against Streptomyces griseus and gram-pos. bacteria, especially in slightly acidic media. I shows an intensive hashish reaction which appears proportionate to its antibacterial activity.
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society
Use & Terms
Hemp (Cannabis sativa)-an antibiotic drug. II. Methods and results of bacteriological investigations and preliminary clinical experiences (1958)
Pharmazie (1958), 13, 155-66 CODEN: PHARAT; ISSN: 0031-7144. Unavailable.
cf. C.A. 52, 4929d. In the course of a systematic investigation of Central European plants for antibacterial components, substances in hemp were found to have high activity.
Ascending paper chromatography was used to sep. the components of the extract, and strips of the chromatogram were laid on plate cultures of Staphylococcus aureus (in prelim. expts.) to demonstrate activity through inhibitory effects. Under conditions of low conch., chlorophyll so tested with the chromatogram was without antibiotic action (perhaps because of low concentration). The active principle was an amorphous resinous substance, soluble in EtOH, pert. ether, and C6H6, of acid nature, with phenolic and COOH groups, and could be acetylated. The Ac derivs., crystalline substances, showed slight reductions in antibacterial activity over the amorphous material, and were not studied as antibiotics.
Purified exts. of Cannabis representing antibiotic-active materials were prepared as follows (cf. Krejci and Santav.acte.y, C.A. 50, 12080d): the comminuted drug was extracted with petr. ether, light benzene, or C6H6; the extract was shaken with N NaOH to form a water-soluble salt; HCl added to precipitate the resin, and this extracted with Et2O, the latter evaporated to leave the antibacterial substance.
This could be crystallized by acetylation. This extract was antibacterial to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, even when diluted to 1:150,000. Gram-neg. organisms of the coli-typhus group, Pseudomonas aerogenes, and Proteus vulgaris were not affected. Blood, blood plasma, and Blood serum partially inactivated this substance, reducing the antibiotic effect. Thus, a diln. of 1:100,000, which inhibited S. aureus, was inactivated by adding 10% blood or blood plasma; there was lesser inactivation at 1:10,000 dilns.
Antibiotic activity was compared at different pH values (cf. Stoll, et al., Schweiz. Z. allgem. Pathol. Bakteriol. 14, 591(1952)) with penicillin and streptomycin. Na salts of the isolated amorphous substance in aqueous alkaline solution showed increasing activity with increase of pH from 5 to 7.5, whereas crystallized Ac derivs. (acids) showed increasing activity when the pH was decreased from 8 to 5.
The rapidity of antibacterial action varied with differing dilns., using S. aureus cultures for testing. Thus, 1: 100 dilns. produced immediate sterilization, 1:10,000 were sterile after 3 hrs., and 1:100,000 dilns. were sterile after 8 hrs. Clinical usage in stomatology, otorhinolaryngology, dermatology, and treatment of tuberculosis is reviewed. 44 references.
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society
Use & Terms
Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).
Microbiology Area, DiSTA (Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies), Italy. [email protected].it
The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THC<0.2% w/v) hemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay.
Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions.
The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.